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  • Author or Editor: J.E. Brown x
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A computerized relational database is an efficient and powerful way to store, retrieve, query, and manipulate data. Databases have been prevalent in the scientific community for several years but, recently, have become more immediately available. Personal computers and local area networks (LAN) have revolutionized the accessibility of shared data. At the USDA-ARS Sugarcane Field Station, a database has been created to streamline the entry and recovery of data for the breeding program using Microsoft (MS) Access 2000, a readily available and inexpensive product, which makes it highly adaptable to a variety of breeding programs. Data collection from the sugarcane breeding program has previously consisted of field books and separate computer files. This method of documentation can lead to errors and lost data, therefore a multi-user database was needed to avoid continued problems in data handling. Data entry is performed though a series of self-explanatory forms. Once entered, data can be accessed through the LAN and easily sorted or grouped as desired or queried for items of interest. Reports can then be output as a means of storing important hard copy records. Data from stage I and stage II (the first two clonally propagated selection stages) of the breeding program have currently been included in the database, as well as the seedling stage (true seed planting). Future plans are to incorporate data from stage III and IV (the final two clonally propagated selection stages). The database also handles the Canal Point breeding collection inventory, crossing information, seed (fuzz) inventory, and pedigree tracking. This type of database has widely applicable properties that can be implemented to handle data for any crop, either agronomic or horticultural.

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The effect of various mulch colors (black, yellow, red, blue, white, and aluminum) on growth and development of `Vates' collards was evaluated in Fall 1996 at the E.V. Smith Research Center in Shorter, Ala. Black polyethylene mulch was installed onto raised, fumigated beds, then sprayed with a 1: 2 (v/v) mixture of exterior oil-based enamel paint to paint thinner with one of the five mulch colors listed. Five-week-old plants were transplanted into beds. Beginning two weeks after transplanting and continuing every other week thereafter, heads were harvested to determine head fresh weight and dry weight. Hourly soil temperatures at 10 cm soil depth were recorded and growing degree days (GDDs) with a base temperature of 4.4 °C were calculated. At two weeks after transplanting, average head fresh and dry weight were highest for the aluminum-colored treatment with head fresh (24.7 and 12.3 g, respectively) and dry weights (2.7 and 1.3 g, respectively) twice that of the yellow treatment (P ≤ 0.05). By four weeks after transplanting and up through the final harvest, marketable yield and average head fresh weights did not differ among the treatments (17,900 kg/ha, 1.4 kg per head, respectively). The red and black mulch treatments accumulated more GDDs than the other treatments, but total marketable yields did not differ among any treatments.

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Abstract

The relative decline in fruit size from primary to secondary to tertiary positions on the inflorescence of large-fruited clones was much greater than for small-fruited clones. Large-fruited clones produced fruit with more achenes and larger achenes than did small-fruited clones. Fruit weight was positively correlated with total achenes per fruit, developed achenes per fruit, mean weight of total and developed achenes, and fruit weight per developed achene. These results lead to the conclusion that fruit size differences among strawberry clones are due to the combined effects of developed achene number, developed achene size, differential activity of achenes in producing growth hormones and differential sensitivity of receptacular tissue in responding to growth hormones.

Open Access

Abstract

Optimum shoot development of Epiphyllum chrysocardium Alexand. stem cutting was obtained on a modified half-strength Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 0.1 mg/liter benzylamino purine (BA). Best rooting occurred after subculturing excised shoots on half-strength MS supplemented with 0.01 mg/liter indolebutyric acid (IBA).

Open Access

Abstract

The sweet, juicy, red flesh of watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. and Nakai] is a popular dessert in Australia, while the bland, white, firm-textured flesh of pie-melons, also Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. and Nakai, is used in jam making. Red flesh color of watermelon is a monogenic trait and recessive to white (7). Both bitter and sweet forms of C. lanatus occur and are naturalized in inland areas of tropical and subtropical Australia (3, 9). Bitter fruit of commercial watermelon occasionally have appeared in markets in Australia. A mutation within a commercial cultivar has been considered as the source of plants producing bitter fruit (1,3,6). The nonbitter characteristic of fruit in commerce is conferred by a single recessive gene (1, 7). However, in bitter fruit of C. lanatus, the concentration of Cucurbitacin E glycoside, the principal compound sensed as bitterness (2, 5), is influenced by a modifier gene or genes (1, 7). The concentration of the glycoside in bitter fruit of Accession 242 (a wild type), and of the bitter mutant of the commercial cultivar Hawkes-bury, are 240-590 mg°kg−1 and 1500-2100 mg°kg−1, respectively, and 910-1240 mg °kg−1 in the F1 (1, 2). The concentration of Cucurbitacin E glycoside in nonbitter fruit of C. lanatus is reported to be 0 mg°kg−1 (1) and 60-90 mg°kg−1 (8).

Open Access

Early okra production was evaluated using `Clemson Spineless' transplants grown under clear polyethylene mulch plus VisPore row cover (VCM), black polyethylene mulch plus VisPore row cover (VBM), clear polyethylene mulch (CM), black polyethylene mulch (BM) and bare soil (BS) for two years. Early yield (1st four harvests in early June) was significantly greater for VCM treatment while total marketable yield at the end of 8 wks were significantly greater for VCM, BM, and VBM treatments, respectively in both years. Enterprise budget analysis showed that VCM and BM treatments had the highest net-return to management on a per acre basis.

Free access

Early okra production was evaluated using `Clemson Spineless' transplants grown under clear polyethylene mulch plus VisPore row cover (VCM), black polyethylene mulch plus VisPore row cover (VBM), clear polyethylene mulch (CM), black polyethylene mulch (BM) and bare soil (BS) for two years. Early yield (1st four harvests in early June) was significantly greater for VCM treatment while total marketable yield at the end of 8 wks were significantly greater for VCM, BM, and VBM treatments, respectively in both years. Enterprise budget analysis showed that VCM and BM treatments had the highest net-return to management on a per acre basis.

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Stock plant productivity is an important concern for growers of mojave sage (Salvia pachyphylla) because this species produces more woody growth as the plant ages. The objective of the study was to determine the best growth substrate and container size combination to maximize stock plant productivity. A secondary objective was to determine whether the stock plant treatments influenced the rooting of vegetative cuttings. Three different container sizes (3, 12, and 15.5 qt) and four soilless substrates composed primarily of bark, peat, and perlite (substrate 1); bark, peat, and vermiculite (substrate 2); bark, peat, and coarse perlite (substrate 3); and peat (substrate 4) were used. The stock plant experiment was conducted using 12 treatment combinations, and a subset of those stock plants was selected randomly for the rooting study that immediately followed the stock plant experiment. Stock plants responded to substrate treatments differently. The most successful stock plants, which produced more cuttings per plant and per square foot, as well as larger cuttings, were those grown in substrate 3. Regardless of substrate, the highest number of cuttings per square foot was obtained from stock plants grown in 3-qt containers, indicating that the smaller containers allow for the most efficient use of space when growing mojave sage stock plants for 4 to 6 months. The rooting of vegetative cuttings was successful (88% to 100% of cuttings rooted after 4 weeks under mist) for all treatment combinations.

Open Access

Abstract

The effect of 4 methods of orchard establishment of pecan [Carya illinoensis (Wang) K. Koch] on early production was determined: 1) by planting seed in place, 2) by transplanting 1-year-old seedlings, 3) by transplanting 3-year-old seedlings, and 4) by transplanting trees budded with ‘Wichita’ scions. Treatments 1, 2, and 3 were budded in the field at the end of the third growing season with ‘Wichita’. Both yield and trunk measurements indicated that treatment differences decreased over 10 years. Yield estimates indicate that treatment 4 would yield about 340-560 kg/ha more during the first 10 years than any of the other treatments. The first 3 treatments differed little in tree development and yield.

Open Access

Abstract

Susceptible tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) cultivars in coastal Queensland may suffer substantial losses from bacterial wilt [Pseudomonas solanacearum (Smith 1896) Smith 1914 biovar III] from late spring to autumn (3). Verticillium wilt (Verticillium dahliae Kleb. race 1) can be a major disease from autumn to early spring. A hybrid cultivar, Redlands Summertaste (1), recently was released and is resistant to bacterial wilt, verticillium wilt, and fusarium wilt [Fusarium oxysporum Schlecht, f.sp. lycopersici (Sacc.) Snyder & Hansen race 1 and 2]. However, although this cultivar has high yields (75 to 92 t·ha–1), the jointed fruit attachment and indeterminate growth habit limit returns to growers who have high labor costs. ‘Redlander’ was developed as an inbred cultivar to provide a locally adapted tomato in which resistances to bacterial, verticillium, and fusarium wilts are combined with good fruit quality, jointless pedicel, and determinate growth habit.

Open Access