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  • Author or Editor: J.D. Williams x
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In Texas, 5,500 native species are distributed over an area comprised of ten regional habitat types. In the Piney Woods region of east Texas, 2,300 plant species occupy 15 million acres. In east Texas, the USFWS has identified 4 species that are federally endangered and 15 that are candidates for that listing. Interest in protecting rare plant habitats and reintroducing those species into similar and appropriate ecosystem types has led to new tools in research and development. Remote sensing is one; this technology is used to derive information about the earth's land and water areas from images acquired at a distance Multispectral and spatial techniques are applied to process and interpret remote sensing imagery for the purpose of producing conventional maps, thematic maps, reource surveys, etc., in the fields of agriculture, botany, archeology, forestry, geography, geology. and others. Remote sensing is used to classify vegetation, interpret forest photogrammetry, estimate timber production, and identify crops, individual plants and leaf structure. This specific project was initiated to determine the potential of remote sensing as a tool to locate known and new rare plant communities in east Texas. To develop benchmark data, a Daedalus scanner image of a previously surveyed and AutoCAD® mapped area, the Vista forest on the SFASU campus, was utilized to develop correlations between imagery, vegetation types and species. By inserting various scan images under the Vista forest AutoCAD® map, known tree species were analyzed through their specific spectral emission characteristics across nine bands. This pilot project has indicated that it is simple to separate pines from hardwoods and illustrate major land use features. However, separation at the species level or groups of species has not been achieved. This paper will trace the history of this project, describe problems and obstacles encountered, and make recommendations for future strategies.

Free access

Abstract

Three hundred and one Extension professionals (88.3% response), working in home horticulture educational programs in the United States in 1984, indicated their greatest areas of inservice education needs in program delivery are: 1) increasing expertise in the various subject matter areas, 2) developing skills in plant disorder diagnosis, 3) managing information files for rapid retrieval and dissemination, and 4) developing and implementing innovative programs. Subject matter areas where respondents have the greatest training need are: 1) pest identification and control, 2) diagnosis of plant disorders, 3) weed identification, 4) home fruit production, 5) information on recommended cultivars, and 6) ornamental plant identification. Home vegetable gardening ranked 1st in respondent perception of importance and perception of proficiency needed for job performance.

Open Access

International experiences enhance opportunities for future employment in that many companies, and particularly government agencies desire graduates that comprehend the global economy of our world. Traditional and emerging opportunities with ports of entry, Homeland Security, and international companies are increasing. There are seven primary avenues to an International Experience for Auburn Horticulture students. In recent months, some students have been deployed to military assignments. Through the IPPS we have been able to facilitate student exchange programs. Several graduate students have accompanied faculty on plant expeditions or in agricultural development or research efforts. However, these three types of opportunities are not long-term or sustainable. The E.T. and Vam York Endowment provides monetary support, often equal to air fare, to faculty and graduate students for short duration trips. A similar endowment created by Bill and Margaret Stallworth provides monetary awards for airfare and other incidentals to undergraduates on international internships six months or longer in duration. The Henry P. Orr Fund for Excellence commemorates out-of-the-classroom experiences championed by Orr for almost 40 years at Auburn. The purpose of the Orr Endowment is to provide short-term study tours of gardens of the world for students and faculty. In Summer 2005 we begin our first Horticulture Study Abroad Program operated on a cost recovery basis providing 13 semester hours of academic credit at a cost similar to taking the same course load on campus. Altogether, our current goal is to involve about 10% of our students annually in international opportunities.

Free access

Abstract

The effect of time of harvest prior to complete field drying of 2 cultivars of dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) was analyzed relative to the quality of the processed product produced. Early harvest did not significantly affect yield (at 10% raw product moisture); however, it did have a significant effect on the quality of the processed product. Typically the processed dark red kidney and pinto beans were more intensely pigmented with later harvest dates, were firmer, and had fewer split seeds. The respiratory rate of the raw product was highly correlated (r = 0.993) with the raw product moisture level. Only small differences were found in the degree of pigmentation of the processed product when comparing the spring with the fall crop of pinto beans. The fall crop of pinto beans had a substantially lower incidence of split beans in the canned product.

Open Access

Abstract

A container growing medium of 2 peat : 1 perlite (v/v) was limed with 0, 0.9, 1.8, 2.7, 3.6, 5.4, 7.2, and 9.0 kg·m–3 dolomite. Media were irrigated with water, providing alkalinity equivalent to 0, 38, and 371 mg·liter–1 CaCO3. Samples were incubated at 25° ± 3°C and pH determined at days 2, 5, 7, 14, 28, 56, and 84. Irrigating with even moderately alkaline water over three months increased pH substantially above levels resulting from dolomite amendments alone.

Open Access

Strong academic abilities and practical work experience are important to employers of horticulture graduates. In greatest demand are students with competent personal and leadership abilities and technical skills. Increased class size and increased university core curriculum requirements hinder our capacity to develop these added skills within our curriculum. However, through extracurricular offerings we can offer students ways to develop skills that are not fully expressed in the academic arena. Student interaction in the traditional horticulture club requires practicing interpersonal relation and often conflict resolution skills. Students learn to work as a team to accomplish goals that they have set for themselves as a group. The Associate¥ Landscape Contractors of America (ALCA) Student Career Days experience offers a highly effective means for reinforcing cognitive skills gained in the classroom and laboratory, as well as supplementing academic learning opportunities with technical activities beyond those offered in the curriculum.

Free access

Results from research funded by RAMP (Risk Assessment and Mitigation Program) funds conducted with sweetpotato growers in Mississippi during 2004 and 2005 are discussed. Insects were sampled on a weekly (2004) or biweekly (2005) schedule on land planted to potatoes with and without insecticidal input. Potatoes were harvested from each cooperator's field and evaluated for insect damage one or more times at the end of the season. Insect pest populations in Mississippi sweetpotatoes were relatively low during 2004 and 2005. Under these conditions, the percentage of sweetpotatoes damaged by insects was only slightly reduced by insecticides. Chrysomelid leaf beetles including flea beetles, cucumber beetles and tortoise beetles were the most obvious group of pest insects. The most prominent insect species in sweep net samples during the season was the sweetpotato flea beetle, however damage by this pest was negligible. The most damaging insect based on our evaluation of root damage was the twelve-spotted cucumber beetle. Root feeding by whitefringed beetles, white grubs, and sugarcane beetles was sporadic within the fields in the study, and damage by these insects was generally minimal in 2004 and 2005. Preliminary assessments of the effect of crops planted the year previous to the planting of sweetpotatoes indicate the following order of greater to lesser insect damage: pasture, soybeans, corn, sweetpotato, and cotton. Delay of harvest beyond the optimum harvest date tended to increase insect damage in marketable roots. Pesticide evaluations associated with the study indicate that some reduction in damaged roots may be derived from application of a soil-incorporated insecticide at lay by.

Free access

Abstract

Storage temperature and season markedly affected cold acclimation and deacclimation and levels of sorbitol and sugars in 1-and 2-year excised apple (Malus domestica Borkh) shoots. Cold hardiness of shoots increased with a decrease in storage temperature (2 to −18°C) from August to January, then decreased as growth began in March. In most seasons, cold hardiness was significantly related to high levels of sorbitol in the sap, and to high levels of sucrose and total sugars (fructose, glucose, sucrose and sorbitol) in the combined bark and wood samples.

Open Access

Shoots of greenhouse-grown Algerian ivy (Hedera canariensis L.) were surface disinfected and explanted on modified Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with BA (10 μm) and NAA (2.5 μm). One month later the shoots were transferred to MS proliferation medium supplemented with TDZ (0.1 or 0.5 μm) and NAA (40 μm). An average of three microshoots developed on each stem treated with TDZ. Pruned shoots grown on MS medium supplemented with GA3 (20 μm) and BA (20 μm) branched better than unpruned shoots (3.7 vs. 1 per explant, respectively). Rooted shoots grown ex vitro grew and developed a shape suitable for commercial sale in 3 months. Chemical names used: N -(phenyl-methyl)-l H -purine-6-amine (BA); gibberellic acid (GA3); 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NM); N -phenyl-W-1,2,3-thiadiazo-5-yl urea (Thidiazuron, TDZ).

Free access

Abstract

Spagnum peat, perlite, vermiculite, and six media formulated (by volume) from these constituents (2:1, 1:1, 1:2 peat: perlite; 2:1, 1:1, 1:2 peat: vermiculite) were limed with 0, 0.9, 1.8, 2.7. 3.6, 5.4, 7.2, and 9.0 kg∙m−3 dolomite [CaMg(CO3)2]. Media were wet to container capacity with distilled/deionized (d/d) water, incubated at 25° ±3°C, and pH determined at day 0, 2, 5, 7, 14, 28, 56, and 84. Liming reactions in mixes could not be predicted from reactions occurring in sphagnum peat, perlite, and vermiculite constituents alone. Although sphagnum peat made the major contribution to liming reactions, both perlite and vermiculite were found to contribute to liming responses of media in which they were incorporated. The major portion of pH change due to incorporation of pulverized dolomite in peat-based media occurred within 2 days. Change in pH was complete within 14 days.

Open Access