The Chinese chestnut (Castanea mollissima) has been cultivated in China for more than 1000 years. During this period, indigenous cultivars and traditional cultivation practices have been used. China is the leading producer of Chinese chestnut (Castanea mollissima) with 37% of the world' s production. In the last 4 years, improved cultivars and improved cultural practices have resulted in marked increases in production.
The leading provinces in Chestnut production are Hopei, Hubei, and Shandong. Severe injury, crop losses and tree mortality have resulted from the chestnut gall wasp in China Yields have increased greatly in Hubei province through cooperative breeding and developmental research between the Department of Horticulture Auburn University and the Hubei Academy of Agricultural Sciences. Two resistant seedlings from Auburn University are being utilized to save the chestnut industry in China and possibly worldwide.