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D.G. Clark and J.W. Kelly

Potted Rosa × hybrida `Meijikatar' plants were produced at 350, 700, and 1050 μl·liter-1 CO2. At a stage of development where half of the flowers showed color, plants were placed into simulated shipping incubators for 5 days at 4 or 16 C.

Increased CO2 levels resulted in shorter production time, increased root dry weight, increased plant height, and reduced total chlorophyll in the upper leaves of the plants. Upon removal from simulated shipping, the number of etiolated shoots per plant increased with increased CO2 concentration. After 5 days in a simulated interior environment, higher shipping temperatures induced more leaf chlorosis, but there were no differences in leaf chlorosis due to CO2 enrichment.

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R.S. Balardin and J.D. Kelly

Sixty-two genetically diverse modern and traditional Phaseolus vulgaris L. cultivars from Brazil, the Dominican Republic, Honduras, Mexico, the Netherlands, and the United States, representative of the Andean and Middle American gene pools, were selected to study the interaction with distinct races of Colletotrichum lindemuthianum (Sacc. & Magnus) Lams.-Scrib. Principal component and phenetic analyses were conducted on the disease reaction to inoculation with 34 races of C. lindemuthianum from Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, the Dominican Republic, Honduras, Mexico, Peru, and the United States. The principal component analysis revealed four clusters in which only one cluster consisted of cultivars from both gene pools. Bean genotypes clustered based on the gene pool origin of the resistance genes present, regardless of the actual gene pool of the host genotype. Middle American genotypes in cluster A carried Andean resistance genes. Further grouping of genotypes based on overall level of resistance within each gene pool was observed. Clusters A and C consisted of the most resistant genotypes from both gene pools. The distribution of genotypes generated by the phenetic analysis, placed the most resistant and susceptible genotypes of the anthracnose differential series at the extremities of the phenogram, providing support for the range in genotypic resistance exhibited by members of the differential series. Races of C. lindemuthianum isolated from Middle American genotypes showed broad virulence on germplasm from both gene pools, whereas races with Andean reaction showed high virulence only on Andean germplasm. The reduced virulence of Andean races on Middle American genotypes suggests selection of virulence factors congruent with diversity in P. vulgaris. In addition, races of C. lindemuthianum formed two clusters corresponding to the Middle American and Andean reaction groups based on the phenetic analysis. In the principal component analysis, most races with the Andean reaction were observed in the clusters C and D, except races 15 and 23 which clustered with Middle American races in cluster B. Only races 38, 39 and 47 from the Dominican Republic showed high similarity in both multivariate analyses and clustered based on geographic origin. Races from other countries showed no geographic effect. The overlapping of specific races, however, with races from different reaction groups might indicate that this group of isolates possesses factors of virulence to both host gene pools. Data based on virulence supports variability in C. lindemuthianum structured with diversity in P. vulgaris.

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J.R. Stavely, J.D. Kelly, and K.F. Grafton

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E.G. Ernest, J.D. Kelly, and M.J. Bassett

`Redcoat' soldier bean cultivar originated from off-type, virgarcus patterned seeds found in a foundation seed lot of `Red Hawk' dark red kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). These off-type seeds were hypothesized to be the result of a single gene mutation. A mutation at either of two loci involved in bean seedcoat pattern expression, T or Z, could convert self-colored seedcoats to a virgarcus pattern. The results of test-crosses of `Redcoat' and `Red Hawk' to lines with known alleles at the seedcoat pattern loci indicate that the dominant T allele of `Red Hawk' mutated to recessive t in `Redcoat'. The mutant t gene prevents expression of red veins in wing petals due to v rk d, and enables expression of the z gene (and possibly other genes) carried cryptically by `Red Hawk'. On the basis of preliminary data, we speculate that the two types of virgarcus patterns observed (classic in `Redcoat' and standard in the tester) may be controlled by different Bip alleles as they interact with t z.

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Kimberly J Walters, George L. Hosfield, and James D. Kelly

Ninety-eight percent of the navy beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) grown in the US are processed. Thus, new cultivars considered for release must meet industry standards. Canning quality behaves as a classical QTL which precludes its selection and evaluation in early generations. Such delays add a measure of inefficiency to a breeding program. Indirect selection for canning quality using molecular markers could increase efficiency. RAPD markers are more useful than RFLP's, in Phaseolus, due to a simpler protocol and a higher level of polymorphism within genetically related cultivars. Three populations of RIL's, derived from crosses between cultivars with standard and sub-standard canning quality, were screened to identify markers associated with canning quality. Material for evaluation was grown at two locations, in three replications and processed, in the Food Science Processing Lab, following industry standards. Quality traits measured were: processed texture, color and appearance. Associations of putative markers with canning quality were identified using ANOVA and Mapmaker programs

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J.D. Kelly, G.L. Hosfield, E.G. Ernest, J. Taylor, M. Uebersax, and G.V. Varner

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J. M. Kemble, W. T. Kelly, G. J. Holmes, and D. C. Sanders

Initiated by DC Sanders, the Southeastern Vegetable Crops Guidelines (SVCG) represents a major regional collaborative effort of Extension Specialists from Alabama, Louisiana, Georgia, Mississippi, North Carolina, and South Carolina whose aim is to produce an annually updated, all-in-one, fits on the dashboard of your truck reference for commercial vegetable growers and Extension workers for the Southeastern US. The first edition was developed in 1998 and published in 1999 as a “for pay” publication, but subsequent editions have employed a partnering with a corporate sponsor and publication company resulting in faster turnaround for printing and a no-cost publication. Each August, a team of Extension Vegetable Specialists, Extension Plant Pathologist, Extension Weed Specialists and Extension Entomologist from around the southeastern US meet for the Southeastern Extension Vegetables Workers (SEVEW) meeting. At this 2-day meeting, the participants' primary focus is to review, rewrite, refine, and update the current year's recommendations for the next edition of the SVCG. Although this publication is mainly used by the states listed, researchers and specialists from other states (FL, KY, OK, VA, TN) annually participate in this meeting. The SEVEW meeting has developed into an opportune forum for dialogues and exchanges updating each other as to the present critical issues in our respective states. Several land-grants are in the process of or are counting the SVCG/SEVEW as part of their federally-mandated multistate programming. Additionally, the SEVCG and SEVEW meeting are officially recognized as a Regional Project by CSREES. The 2005 edition can be found at

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M.J. McMahon, J.W. Kelly, D.R. Decoteau, R.E. Young, and R.K. Pollock

`Spears' (nonpinched and pinched) and `Yellow Mandalay' (pinched) chrysanthemums were grown in growth chambers equipped with panels filled with liquids that served as spectral filters. Light quality was altered by reducing blue light, increasing red: far-red (R: FR) light, or reducing R: FR. Control panels did not selectively alter light transmission. Photosynthetic photon flux was the same in all chambers. All plants grown under increased R: FR filters had reduced height, reduced internode length, and increased chlorophyll content compared to controls. Reduction in blue light decreased chlorophyll content of pinched plants compared to controls. Pinched plants grown under increased R: FR light and !ong days developed fewer nodes than controls due to the formation of abnormal capitula; the controls and plants from the other treatments developed more nodes before producing similarly abnormal capitula. Stem diameter and leaf area did not differ due to treatments.

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Jianjun Chen, Dennis B. McConnell, Richard J. Henny, Kelly Everitt, and Russell D. Caldwell

Fire flash (Chlorophytum amaniense), a member of Liliaceae, is attracting considerable attention in the foliage plant industry as a new addition for interior plantscaping. Coral-colored petioles and midribs contrasting with dark green leaves make it a sought after specimen. Originally collected from rainforests of eastern Africa in 1902, it has remained largely obscure for a century. Recently, studies on fire flash's propagation, production, and interiorscape performance have been completed. This report presents relevant botanical information and the results of our 4-year evaluation of this plant. Fire flash can be propagated through seed, division, or tissue culture and produced as a potted foliage plant under light levels from 114 to 228 μmol·m–2·s–1 and temperatures from 18 to 32 °C. Finished plants after being placed in building interiors are able to maintain their aesthetic appearances under a light level as low as 8 μmol·m–2·s–1 for 8 months or longer.

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M.C. Posa, J.D. Kelly, G.L. Hosfield, and K.C. Grafton

Two recombinant inbred populations of kidney beans were developed and evaluated for canning quality. One population, composed of 75 recombinant inbred lines (RILs), was from a Montcalm/California Dark Red Kidney 82 cross. The second population, with 73 RILs, was from a Montcalm/California Early Light Red Kidney cross. RILs from both populations were planted in North Dakota in 1996 and Michigan in 1996 and 1997. Beans of each RIL were thermally processed using established procedures. Appearance and degree of splitting of each sample and the check varieties were scored subjectively on a 1-7 scale to represent the minimum and maximum acceptability levels of the traits, respectively. Genotypes and genotype × environment interactions were highly significant based on analyses of variance. In the 75 RIL population, seven lines, based on appearance, consistently appeared in the top 25% in all environments (mean = 4.5; range = 4.0-6.1), and four had consistently high acceptability scores (mean = 4.6; range = 4.0-6.3) for the degree of splitting trait. In the population with 73 RILs, nine lines consistently appeared in the top 25% in all environments based on appearance (mean = 4.6; range = 4.1-5.3). For degree of splitting, nine lines had consistently high acceptability scores (mean = 4.2; range = 3.7-5.1). Appearance and splitting of cooked dry bean are quantitatively inherited traits. The field experiments were useful to obtain RILs for screening to identify molecular markers associated with QTLs. Three primers—OQ11, ON186, and OF5—reported to be useful RAPD markers for processing quality in navy beans are of special interest in the current study.