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  • Author or Editor: J.D. Jones x
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Abstract

A shift in the form of Ν in the nutrient solution to all NH4 after initial bloom significantly reduced pod yield as much as 50%, depending on the prebloom NO3/NH4 ratio. Pod yield was unaffected by prebloom NO3/NH4 ratio if at least half of the Ν in the nutrient solution was NO3, or if NO3 supplied all of the Ν during postbloom development. Therefore, for maximum pod yield, NO3 should be the primary Ν form supplied to snapbean plants after bloom. Kjeldahl Ν values were consistently high in the vegetative tissue with NH4 as the predominant Ν form, indicating that the use of Kjeldahl Ν values as an indicator of the Ν status of the plant in relationship to pod yield would be a misuse of this diagnostic tool without knowing the predominant Ν form being absorbed by the plant. The NO3 content in upper mature leaves at pod maturity was significantly correlated (r = 0.88***) to NO3 level applied, with a value of 7000 ppm in the leaves associated with highest pod yield. Total Ν (Kjeldahl Ν + NO3) of at least 5.50% in upper mature leaves at pod maturity was associated with highest pod yield.

Open Access

Three broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. Italica group) cultivars (Baccus, Packman, and Southern Comet) were grown for 14, 24, or 34 days at 22/18C (day/night) in a greenhouse. Then plants were moved to growth chambers where temperatures were maintained at 26/22, 30/26, or 34/30C and were grown for 1, 2, or 3 weeks before returning them to the greenhouse. A1 varieties when exposed to high temperatures developed smaller heads Packman when exposed to high temperatures resulted in a reduction in uniformity. Other cultivars were not effected. Lack of openness, an important marketable characteristic was reduced by high temperatures. However, Baccus at 34 days old was not effected by the heat. We would expect this response since this is the head development stage and cultivar is heat tolerant. Plant exposed to high temperatures developed heads earlier when held for 3 weeks. When plants were held at 36/30C for 3 weeks, the largest reduction in plant growth was recorded. However, all plants showed a reduction in growth when exposed to high temperatures.

Free access

Three broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. Italica group) cultivars (Baccus, Packman, and Southern Comet) were grown for 14, 24, or 34 days at 22/18C (day/night) in a greenhouse. Then plants were moved to growth chambers where temperatures were maintained at 26/22, 30/26, or 34/30C and were grown for 1, 2, or 3 weeks before returning them to the greenhouse. A1 varieties when exposed to high temperatures developed smaller heads Packman when exposed to high temperatures resulted in a reduction in uniformity. Other cultivars were not effected. Lack of openness, an important marketable characteristic was reduced by high temperatures. However, Baccus at 34 days old was not effected by the heat. We would expect this response since this is the head development stage and cultivar is heat tolerant. Plant exposed to high temperatures developed heads earlier when held for 3 weeks. When plants were held at 36/30C for 3 weeks, the largest reduction in plant growth was recorded. However, all plants showed a reduction in growth when exposed to high temperatures.

Free access

Abstract

Twenty-two sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.) breeding lines and 19 open-pollinated offspring from each were used to estimate the heritabilities of 7 measures of soil insect injury. Four measures of injury by the wireworm, Diabrotica spp., and Systena spp. (WDS) complex and h2 (± SE) were: percentage of roots injured, 0.45 ± 0.12; holes per root, 0.32 ± 0.09; severity index, 0.37 ±0.11; and damage score, 0.39 ± 0.17. Two measures of injury by the sweetpotato flea beetle, Chaetocnema confinis Crotch, and h2 were: percentage of roots injured, 0.40 ± 0.07, and tunnels per root, 0.25 ± 0.08. The h2 of percentage of roots injured by all insects was 0.51 ± 0.12. The percentage measures were more easily obtained and were as effective as the other measures under the conditions of natural infestation that occurred in this test. Further advances in selection for high levels of resistance to soil insects are possible within the breeding materials tested.

Open Access

Abstract

Soil insect root injury to resistant sweet potato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.] cultivars ‘Regal’ and ‘Southern Delite’ was compared to injury to ‘Jewel’ and ‘Centennial’ in trials with the resistant-standard W-13 and the susceptible-standard SC 1149-19. Injury by three groups of insects was evaluated: the wirewoom-Diabrotica-Systena complex (WDS), which includes the southern potato wireworm (Conoderus falli Lane), the tobacco wireworm (C. vespertinus Fabricius), the banded cucumber beetle (Diabrotica balteata LeConte), the spotted cucumber beetle (D. undecimpunctata howardi Barber), the elongate flea beetle (Systena elongata Fabricius), the pale-striped flea beetle (S. blanda Melsheimer), and S. frontalis Fabricius (a flea beetle); the sweet potato flea beetle (Chaetocnema confinis Crotch.); and a white grub (Plectris aliena Chapin). Relative control estimates were obtained by comparison to the susceptible standard. ‘Regal’ and ‘Southern Delite’ provided good control of all three insect groups with control of all insect injuries of 79.2% and 81.0%, respectively. ‘Jewel’ and ‘Centennial’ were resistant to the sweet potato flea beetle and sustained less damage by WDS than the susceptible standard, but would still be classed as susceptible to WDS. ‘Centennial’ was as susceptible to the white grub as SC 1149-19. The levels of resistance demonstrated for ‘Regal’ and ‘Southern Delite’ would provide growers an alternative to insecticides for the control of these insects.

Open Access

The test involved the use of a control (untreated), an entomopathogenic nematode (Steinernema carpocapsae), a granular insecticide (Dyfonate 2.24 Kg ai/ha) in combination with 7 sweetpotato cultivars having varying levels of resistance and susceptibility to soil insect damage. The parasite was applied three times at monthly intervals (67/cm2). The parasite or insecticide did not reduce root injury by soil insects as compared to the control (untreated). Wireworms, Diabrotica sp. and Systena sp. damage in the resistant cultivars Regal, Southern Delite, Excel and Resisto was less than for the susceptible cultivars (SC–1149-19, Jewel and Centennial). Sweetpotato flea beetle resistance was observed for all cultivars except SC–1149-19 which was susceptible. In this test resistant cultivars were more effective in reducing soil insect damage than the biological or chemical control methods.

Free access

The test involved the use of a control (untreated), an entomopathogenic nematode (Steinernema carpocapsae), a granular insecticide (Dyfonate 2.24 Kg ai/ha) in combination with 7 sweetpotato cultivars having varying levels of resistance and susceptibility to soil insect damage. The parasite was applied three times at monthly intervals (67/cm2). The parasite or insecticide did not reduce root injury by soil insects as compared to the control (untreated). Wireworm, Diabrotica and Systena damage in the resistant cultivars Regal, Southern Delite, Excel and Resisto was less than for the susceptible cultvars (SC–1149-19, Jewel and Centennial). Sweetpotato flea beetle resistance was observed for all cultivars except SC–1149-19 which was susceptible. In this test resistant cultivars were more effective in reducing soil insect damage than the biological or chemical control methods.

Free access

An efficient deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) extraction procedure that yields large quantities of DNA would provide adequate DNA for a large number of different analytical procedures. This study was conducted to compare three DNA extraction procedures for cost, time efficiency, and DNA content while extracting DNA from Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L.). Three students at the Univ. of Illinois with varying levels of DNA extraction experience conducted DNA extractions using Plant DNeasy™ Mini Kits, Plant DNAzol® Reagent, and a PEX/CTAB buffer. Costs varied significantly with cost (US$) per DNA sample of $3.04 for the DNeasy™ method, $0.99 for the DNAzol® method, and $0.39 for the PEX/CTAB extraction. The DNAzol® method was the fastest; although extracting 2.8 ng less DNA than the DNeasy™ method, it did not require the use of hazardous organic solvents, and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers were satisfactory for DNA fingerprinting of Kentucky bluegrass cultivars. The PEX/CTAB method, which did not include a tissue homogenization step, did not have reproducible banding patterns due to miniscule and inconsistent quantities of DNA extracted, or possibly due to inadequate purification. The investigator with the least DNA extraction experience was the slowest, while extracting 75% more DNA. All three methods are easily adapted to laboratories having personnel with different levels of experience. The DNAzol® Reagent method should save time and money, with reproducible results when many individual plant samples need to be identified. Chemical names used: potassium ethyl xanthogenate (PEX); cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB)

Free access

Abstract

In Florida, most producers of cut chrysanthemums (Dendranthema grandiflora Tzvelev.) use overhead irrigation systems and fertilize with soluble fertilizer injected through the system. Trickle irrigation can be used to produce cut chrysanthemums with substantial savings in water (2). Controlled-release fertilizers can be successfully used to produce cut chrysanthemums (1) and may be advantageous in certain production situations (3). Direct yield comparisons influenced by the four possible combinations of irrigation and fertilization practices have not been researched in previous studies. We, therefore, evaluated main and interactive effects of overhead or trickle irrigation in conjunction with soluble or controlled-release fertilization on the yield and postharvest quality of cut chrysanthemums.

Open Access