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- Author or Editor: J.A. Flore x
S-ethyl dipropylthiocarbamate (EPTC, 2.24 kg×ha) inhibited epicuticular wax production on developing leaves of cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. Capitata group cv. Market Prize), resulting in an increase in cuticular permeability. This increased penetration of 14C-I-naphthaleneacetic acid (14C-NAA) and increased cuticular transpiration. EPTC-enhanced penetration was a consequence of increased diffusion across the cuticle, and not of active uptake. Application of EPTC increased penetration of NAA 200% in bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)and 121% in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.). For cabbage, the percent increase in penetration due to EPTC inhibition of cuticle development 7 days after treatment (141 %) was similar to that at 42 days (112%). The effect of EPTC declined until full leaf expansion (28 days after application). Silver nitrate was preferentially taken up by the cuticular ledges of guard cells and the anticlinal walls of epidermal cells, and was greater in leaves from EPTC-treated plants than in those from non-treated plants.
14C(2-chloroethhyl)phosphonic acid (ethephon) was readily absorbed by leaves of cherry (Prunus cerasus L. cv. Montmorency: Prunus avium L. cv. Windsor, Napoleon). Penetration was greater (20–25 ×) through the abaxial than the adaxial surface, in light than in dark, and for ‘Windsor’ and ‘Napoleon’ than for ‘Montmorency’. Penetration was temperature-dependent, increasing 55 × between 15–35°C. The addition of a surfactant (X-77) increased wetting and penetration (+ 65%). Radioassay of ethylene released after 14C-ethephon treatment indicated that most of the ethylene (>80%) was derived from ethephon and not endogenously produced. The significance of these findings in relationship to field application is discussed.
Production of epicuticular wax by expanding leaves of cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata cv. Market Prize) was inhibited by S-ethyl dipropylthiocarbamate (EPTC) and trichloroacetic acid (TCA). Increasing the concentration of EPTC (0, 0.28, 0.56, 1.12 and 2.24 kg/ha) resulted in greater inhibition of epicuticular wax production. Both soil and foliar application of EPTC were effective. All leaves not fully expanded at time of application were affected, and no regeneration of epicuticular wax was evident after full leaf expansion. The difference between the amount of wax produced by the control and EPTC-treated plants gradually declined on those leaves which developed after EPTC application. This reduction was accompanied by an absence of wax bloom and a reduction of surface wax fine-structure.
‘Redhaven’ peach fruits were exposed to various durations of radiation at the end of stage II of fruit development. Exposure of only 3 days (totals about 6280 J·em−2) markedly stimulated anthocyanin development. Color development as a function of solar radiation followed a power curve with nearly maximal level obtained after 8 days of exposure (18,003 J·em−2). A similar response was obtained with shade screen (40% and 10% of full sun); the greater the shade the less red color developed. Shading fruit with aluminum foil resulted in softer fruit with a lower level of soluble solids as compared to control fruit. Fruit exposure to solar radiation therefore may have a direct effect on fruit sink activity.
The recent development of small portable infrared thermometers has made canopy temperature an easily measured characteristc in the field. Our objective was to correlate a reduction of soil water with foliage temperature and to compare it with other indicators of plant stress (Pn, E, gs, leaf expansion, sap flow). During Summer 1998, we evaluated the responses of potted apple rootstocks (cultivars Budagowski 9, M9, and Mark) to soil water deficit. Irrigation was withheld for 7 days, and the canopy temperature (Tc) was measured daily with an infrared camera. Tc was always higher than air temperature (Ta). Tc between control and stress plants began to differentiate from day 3. In Mark, this difference was maintained until the end of the experiment. However, gas exchange in Mark seemed to be less affected by the stress than in the other two cultivars. At day 7, midday stomatal conductance (gs) was 38.0, 32.3, and 72.0 mmol·m–2·s–1 in Budagowski 9, M9, and Mark, respectively (control values varied between 161.6 and 164.3 mmol·m–2·s–1 for all the cultivars). Heat-pulse sapflow sensors installed on Mark indicated that the speed of the xylem sap was affected by the stress from day 4 (19-26 cm/h for the controls vs. 15–21 cm/h for the stressed plants). Specific details on the physiological data will be presented.
Pest damage to apple fruit is intolerable by our current standards. However, the effects of foliar damage on the plant's physiological status and fruit quality are not thoroughly understood. The objective of this work was to determine the time during the growing season when apple trees are most susceptible to foliar damage. Terbacil (50 ppm), an inhibitor of photosynthesis, was applied to 8-year-old `Gala'/Mark planted at 6 ×18-foot spacing or 14-year-old `Empire'/M106 planted at 18 × 20-foot spacing at 20- to 30-day intervals from petal fall until harvest to simulate environmental or biological stress. The work was conducted from 1995 through 1998. Photosynthesis was inhibited by 50% to 80% within 24 h of application of Terbacil but recovered to control levels 10 to 14 days after. The fruit were evaluated at harvest for total yield, size of fruit, and fruit number. Terbacil induced fruit abscission when applied at petal fall but not at later dates. The earlier the application, the greater the effect on current seasons yield and fruit size depending on crop load. For `Gala', there was a reduction in yield at petal fall of 30% to 70% over the control trees. Further detailed results will be presented.
Resource partitioning between individual sink organs is dependent upon the supply of carbon from current photosynthesis and reserves, the relative ability of the translocation system to deliver resources to the sinks, and the strength or competitive ability of the sinks. To comprehend photoassimilate distribution in Prunus, one must have a general understanding of habitat, growth patterns, and changes in sink demand over the life cycle and seasonal development of the plant. In this review, we describe assimilation rates for the major Prunus species and general dry matter allocation patterns, with emphasis on environmental and biological factors that effect photosynthesis, partitioning, and control. The following factors will be covered: annual growth, changes with tree age, environmental and biological factors that effect photosynthesis, genetic factors, water, light, fruiting, and pruning.
A series of experiments were conducted with one-year-old potted sour cherry trees to evaluate the effects of source reduction (removal of 70% of the expanded leaves = Defol.) or source enhancement (continuous illumination = C.L.) on source leaf gas exchange. There was a significant increase in net CO2 assimilation (A) and stomatal conductance (gs) of Defol. within one day in contrast to the non-defoliated control (Cont.). Defol. had lower daily dark respiration rates (Rd) and higher A values throughout the 14 h diurnal photoperiod than Cont. Defol. had daily assimilation rates 50% higher than Cont. in as early as 3 days. One month later, specific leaf weight, leaf chlorophyll and A was higher in Defol. Non-defoliated plants were also placed under either a 14 h photoperiod (Cont.) or a 24 h photoperiod (24h). A of 24h was reduced from Cont. by 50% after one day. The diurnal response of A in Cont. was removed when plants were put in C.L. Following 7 days in C.L., 70% defoliation of 24h plants resulted in a complete recovery from photosynthetic inhibition within 48 hours. The short-term effects of source manipulation on photochemical and carboxylation efficiencies, photorespiration and stomatal limitations will also be addressed.
Terbacil an inhibitor of photosynthesis was applied to 10-year-old `Redchief' apple trees in the field carrying a heavy or light fruit crop, or to trees in pots. This simulated the effect of photosynthetic inhibition (PN-I) by either biotic or abiotic stress. Current as well as the next season's crop and physiology were determined. The magnitude and duration of photosynthetic inhibition was dose-dependent. A concentration of 63 mg·liter–1 was applied at 15-day intervals from bloom through harvest. Photosynthesis was in inhibited by 50% to 80% within 24 h of application, but recovered to control levels 10 to 14 days later. Terbacil at 15 and 30 DAFB induced fruit abscission, but not at later dates. The earlier the application the greater the effect on current seasons yield and fruit size. There was also a significant interaction with crop load. There were no significant effects on fruit soluble solids, fruit firmness, fruit density, or fruit color at harvest. Terbacil did not affect cold acclimation, deep winter hardiness, or deacclimation. Pn inhibition at 30, 60, 80, and 100 DAFB reduced return bloom.