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- Author or Editor: J. Wolf x
Exacum affine Balb. plants grown at 85, 183, or 345 μE m-2s-1 from fluorescent and incandescent lamps flowered most rapidly at 345 μE m-2s-1. Plants grown at 183 μE m-2s-1 energy level were slower to flower, but plant forms were more acceptable commercially.
A computer program was developed for predicting the times of emergence, flowering, turning stage, and harvesting of processing tomatoes. The program was validated and calibrated by using 1972-1980 tomato data from 44 fields at 2 locations in Israel. Predictions are based on accumulation of heat units defined in terms of “physiological days”, where 1 physiological day is equivalent to a calendar day with a constant temperature of 26°C. The growing season was divided into 4 stages: from sowing to emergence, from emergence to flowering, from flowering to turning stage, and from turning stage to harvesting. Accumulation of physiological days during the first 2 stages is based on a linear function. During the last 2 stages, a quadratic function is used to calculate daytime heat units wherever the daily average temperature is above 20°. The maximum rate of development is at 26°. In the last stage, soil stress index also is taken into account. Use of the model makes it possible to predict the day of harvest with a precision of ±3 days, as compared with ±9 days when a daily mean systems is employed.
Accessions of several wild tomato species [Lycopersicon hirsutum H. and B. (LA 1363 and LA 1777), L. chilense Dun. (LA 1969 and LA 1971), and Solanum lycopersicoides Dun. (LA 1964)] were examined for cold tolerance and compared to the fast germination of L. esculentum Mill. PI 341988 and to the normal germination of ‘UC82B’. The wild accessions were collected above 3000 m and presumed to be cold-tolerant because of natural habitat. A number of characteristics, including germination, emergence, chlorophyll fluorescence, electrolyte leakage, and plastochron index were used to evaluate chilling resistance. PI 341988 germinated faster than the other genotypes at temperatures above 10°C, but germination of this accession virtually ceased below 10°. The high-altitude accessions continued to germinate, albeit at a reduced rate, below 10°. Growth rates at 12°/6° (day/night) were compared to growth at 24°/18° and were found to be greater in the high-altitude accessions than ‘UC82B’ The reduction in chlorophyll fluorescence when leaf disks were exposed to 1° was less in the high-altitude accessions than in ‘UC82B’, indicating less effect of this temperature on photosynthesis in the wild species. Electrolyte leakage was greater in ‘UC82B’ and LA1777 (L. hirsutum) than high-altitude accessions of L. chilense and S. lycopersicoides, but evidence is presented that this method is not reliable in screening for cold tolerance. Crosses were made between ‘UC82B’ and the wild species, and segregating populations were screened using the methods mentioned above. In each population, there were plants that showed cold resistance similar to the wild parent, suggesting the possibility of developing cold-tolerant cultivars.
Fruiting spurs (`Red Prince Delicious') (RD) and shoots (`Sundale Spur Golden Delicious') (CD) with three leaf:fruit ratios and comparable nonfruiting spurs and shoots were girdled on 7 September 1988. An interaction between fruiting status and time existed for most parameters measured on both cultivars while there was no effect of leaf:fruit ratio. At 1 day after treatment (DAT) few differences existed due to fruiting status on either cultivar. At 8 DAT with RD and at 4 and 8 DAT with GD, Pn, transpiration (Tr), leaf water potential (ψ L), and nonreducing sugars were greater on fruiting than nonfruiting spurs and shoots while leaf resistance (RL), SLW, and starch were lower on fruiting spurs. In nonfruiting spurs and shoots Pn, Tr, and ψL tended to decrease while RL and SLW increased with time whereas m fruiting spurs and shoots most parameters remained constant. Total nonstructural carbohydrates, reducing sugars, and starch were greater in nonfruiting than fruiting spurs and shoots.
Three-year-old `Valencia' orange [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck] trees were exposed to air pollutants for 4. years in open-top field chambers to determine the chronic effects of ambient oxidants (primarily ozone) or sulfur dioxide (SO2) on fruit yield and quality and tree growth. Ozone concentrations averaged 0.012,0.040, and 0.075 ppm for 0800 to 2000 hr during April to October for filtered, half-ambient, and full ambient oxidant chambers. Sulfur dioxide was applied continuously at 0.09 ppm. Oxidant and SO2 effects were only marginally significant, as there was considerable variability in response among individual trees and between years. Across two “on” production years, yields were 31% lower with ambient oxidants, 11% lower with half-ambient oxidants, and 29% lower with sulfur dioxide compared to filtered air. Number of fruit per tree was reduced by ambient oxidants and SO2. Individual fruit weights were reduced by ambient oxidants, but no other fruit quality characteristics showed definite responses to ambient oxidants or SO2. Ambient oxidants had no effect on yield or quality of fruit during one “off' production year. Neither ambient oxidants nor SO, affected tree growth.
Prohexadione-Ca (BAS 125 W) is currently developed as an inhibitor of excessive vegetative growth in apple. In addition to the control of shoot growth, pronounced effects on the incidence of scab (Venturia inaequalis) and fire blight (Erwinia amylovora) are observed that are not due to any fungicidal or bactericidal effect of the compound. Prohexadione-Ca induces marked changes in the metabolism of phenylpropanoids most likely by inhibiting distinct dioxygenases, such as flavanone 3-hydroxylase, which require 2-oxoglutarate as a co-substrate. The content of flavonoids such as luteoliflavan (which does not normally occur in apple tissue) and eriodyctiol is drastically increased reaching levels in the range of 50 mg per gram of dried young shoot tissue. Simple phenols, the identity of which is still unknown, also undergo intense changes. Since phenylpropanoids have often been found to be involved in defense mechanisms of higher plants, further studies on their role in pathogen resistance in apple are justified from these results.