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  • Author or Editor: J. W. Williams x
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Abstract

A 2-year study was conducted on the effects of cultivar, irrigation, ethephon (1976 and 1977) and harvest date (1977) on yield distribution and quality attributes of canned tomatoes. The Arkansas selections 74-41 and 74-42 produced higher yields of canning ripe tomatoes than either ‘Chico III’ or ‘Roma VF’ in 1976, while 74-41 and ‘UC-134’ yielded higher than ‘Chico III’ and ‘Roma VF’ in 1977. Ethephon increased the yield of canning ripe fruit in 1976 but not in 1977 when rainfall was higher. Selections 74-41 and 74-42 were highest in % drained weight retention in 1976 and % drained weight retention, viscosity and USDA color scores in 1977 when compared with other cultivars tested. Percent soluble and total solids changed with cultivar, year, harvest date, and irrigation. There was an increase in viscosity, % soluble and total solids, and shearpress values at higher density levels in selection 74-41 as compared to little or no change in ‘Roma VF’. Viscosity was also affected by irrigation and treatment with ethephon.

Open Access

Abstract

Fruit color of ‘Golden Delicious’ apples was closely related to N content and color of leaves. This relationship was significant for both spur leaves and mid-terminal leaves. Prediction of fruit color from spur and mid-terminal leaves was obtained in late July and mid-September. Nitrogen content was higher in the mid-terminal leaves than in the spur leaves.

Open Access

Growers, nurseries, landscape contractors and installers, and those responsible for maintenance have observed a trend that trees are too deep within the root ball. This study addresses the relationship between planting depth and its effect on tree survival, root growth, root architecture, and caliper growth. The experiment was initiated to determine the effect of planting depth on nursery-grown trees. Three-year-old, 2.1–2.7 m, bare-root liners of Acer platanoides `Emerald Lustre', Fraxinus americana `Autumn Purple', Fraxinus pennsylvanica `Patmore', and Gleditsia triacanthos f. inermis `Shade Master' were planted in April 2004 in a completely randomized design with 20 replications per treatment per species. The trees were selected so that the distance between the graft union and the trunk flare was consistent. Trees were planted with the graft union 15.2 cm below the soil surface, or with the base of the graft union at the finished grade or with the trunk flare at the finished grade. The trees were grown in a nursery field setting with minimal supplemental watering. There were no differences in stem caliper growth at the end of two seasons in any of the four species. Root dry mass, stem elongation, and rooting structure were determined on a representative sample of trees while others were planted into the landscape for a long-term study of the effects of the original planting depth on landscape performance.

Free access

International experiences enhance opportunities for future employment in that many companies, and particularly government agencies desire graduates that comprehend the global economy of our world. Traditional and emerging opportunities with ports of entry, Homeland Security, and international companies are increasing. There are seven primary avenues to an International Experience for Auburn Horticulture students. In recent months, some students have been deployed to military assignments. Through the IPPS we have been able to facilitate student exchange programs. Several graduate students have accompanied faculty on plant expeditions or in agricultural development or research efforts. However, these three types of opportunities are not long-term or sustainable. The E.T. and Vam York Endowment provides monetary support, often equal to air fare, to faculty and graduate students for short duration trips. A similar endowment created by Bill and Margaret Stallworth provides monetary awards for airfare and other incidentals to undergraduates on international internships six months or longer in duration. The Henry P. Orr Fund for Excellence commemorates out-of-the-classroom experiences championed by Orr for almost 40 years at Auburn. The purpose of the Orr Endowment is to provide short-term study tours of gardens of the world for students and faculty. In Summer 2005 we begin our first Horticulture Study Abroad Program operated on a cost recovery basis providing 13 semester hours of academic credit at a cost similar to taking the same course load on campus. Altogether, our current goal is to involve about 10% of our students annually in international opportunities.

Free access

Abstract

The effect of time of harvest prior to complete field drying of 2 cultivars of dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) was analyzed relative to the quality of the processed product produced. Early harvest did not significantly affect yield (at 10% raw product moisture); however, it did have a significant effect on the quality of the processed product. Typically the processed dark red kidney and pinto beans were more intensely pigmented with later harvest dates, were firmer, and had fewer split seeds. The respiratory rate of the raw product was highly correlated (r = 0.993) with the raw product moisture level. Only small differences were found in the degree of pigmentation of the processed product when comparing the spring with the fall crop of pinto beans. The fall crop of pinto beans had a substantially lower incidence of split beans in the canned product.

Open Access

Zoysiagrass (Zoysia japonica Steud.) requires few inputs and provides high-quality turf in the transition zone, but is expensive to sprig or sod. Establishment by seed is less expensive than vegetative establishment, but little is known about renovation of existing turf to zoysiagrass using seed. Two experiments were performed to determine effects of herbicides and seeding rates on establishment of zoysiagrass in Indiana and Kentucky. In the first experiment, interseeding zoysiagrass into existing perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) without the use of glyphosate before seeding resulted in 2% zoysiagrass coverage 120 days after seeding (DAS). In plots receiving glyphosate before seeding, zoysiagrass coverage reached 100% by 120 DAS. In the second experiment, MSMA + dithiopyr applied 14 days after emergence (DAE) or MSMA applied at 14+28+42 DAE provided the best control of annual grassy weeds and the greatest amount of zoysiagrass establishment. Applying MSMA + dithiopyr 14 DAE provided 7% less zoysiagrass coverage compared to MSMA applied 14 DAE at one of the four locations. Increasing the seeding rate from 49 kg·ha-1 to 98 kg·ha-1 provided 3% to 11% more zoysiagrass coverage by the end of the growing season at 3 of 4 locations. Successful zoysiagrass establishment in the transition zone is most dependent on adequate control of existing turf using glyphosate before seeding and applications of MSMA at 14+28+42 DAE, but establishment is only marginally dependent on seeding rates greater than 49 kg·ha-1. Chemical names used: N-(phosphonomethyl) glycine (glyphosate); monosodium methanearsenate (MSMA); S,S-dimethyl 2-(difluoromethyl)-4-(2-methylpropyl)-6-(triflurormethyl)-3,5-pyridinedicarbothioate (dithiopyr).

Free access

Abstract

A survey for dead spur was made by rating 8600 ‘Delicious’ apple trees (Malus domestica Borkh.) on seedling rootstock in 3 of the 4 major apple-growing areas of Washington. Only ‘Earlistripe Delicious’ was found to be appreciably affected, and no difference in incidence of dead spur was observed among the areas.‘Oregon Spur Delicious’ and ‘Earlistripe Delicious’ were rated on 5 rootstocks and no rootstock effect was detected. Dead spur symptoms on trees of other strains or cultivars and on pollenizer limbs grafted into ‘Earlistripe Delicious’ affected by dead spur suggest the disorder is transmissible. In addition, an association was noticed between cultivars with long leggy-type growth and the occurrence of dead spur.

Open Access

Abstract

Storage temperature and season markedly affected cold acclimation and deacclimation and levels of sorbitol and sugars in 1-and 2-year excised apple (Malus domestica Borkh) shoots. Cold hardiness of shoots increased with a decrease in storage temperature (2 to −18°C) from August to January, then decreased as growth began in March. In most seasons, cold hardiness was significantly related to high levels of sorbitol in the sap, and to high levels of sucrose and total sugars (fructose, glucose, sucrose and sorbitol) in the combined bark and wood samples.

Open Access

Abstract

Weed control with certain triazole or triazine herbicides on 4-year-old nonbearing pear trees (Pyrus communis L. cv. d’Anjou) resulted in markedly increased vigor, as evidenced by higher leaf N, larger trunk circumference, and greater subsequent yields of larger fruit than on trees where weed control was delayed until trees were 6 years old. Fruit from the latter treatment matured earlier and had more yellowness, softer flesh, higher soluble solids, and greater ethylene production than fruit from the vigorous trees. There was also evidence of increased N efficiency with the heterocyclic nitrogen herbicides.

Open Access

Children's gardens have recently been shown to increase life skills. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects that gardening/plant activities from the Junior Master Gardener curriculum, Literature in the Garden, have on children's life skills. The life skills examined were leadership, teamwork, self-understanding, decision-making skills, and communication skills. About 130 third-grade students from a Lee County, AL, school participated in the study. Students were equally divided into control and experimental groups, and each student was given the youth life skills inventory (YLSI) as a pre- and posttest. The experimental group participated in eight gardening/plant activities after the pretest, whereas the control group did not complete the activities. No significant differences were found between pretests and posttests for teamwork, self-understanding, decision making, communication, and overall life skills. Significant decreases from pretest to posttest were found on leadership skills for the experimental group. Several trends were observed with students who read more for fun, read more each week, and read more garden books generally increasing in life skills.

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