Dormancy level is an important factor in rooting stem cuttings of conifers. Eldarica pine, a Mediterranean species, is a multiple flushing pine that does not appear to express endodormancy in southern New Mexico. Photoperiod manipulations can alter the dormancy level of some conifer species; however, effects on eldarica pine are unknown. Half-sib stock plants were randomly assigned to one of three photoperiods: natural daylength (>12 hours, control), long-term (7 months) exposure to 9-hour daylength (LTSD), and 2-week exposure to 9-hour daylength (STSD). Of the cuttings from LTSD stock plants, 78% rooted; however, only 67% of the cuttings from the other two treatments rooted. Differences in rooting also were related to shoot type of the cuttings. Cuttings from expanded short shoots without a bud rooted more frequently than cuttings from branch shoots with or without a bud present. Applications of these results are discussed.
Ajuga reptans L. is an herbaceous ornamental mint grown in borders or as a groundcover, and is commonly propagated vegetatively and by seed. Three hundred and fifty-six A. reptans samples were obtained from growers in Washington, Michigan, Iowa, and Ohio, and screened for alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV), tobacco streak ilarvirus (TSV), cucumber mosaic cucumovirus (CMV), tomato aspermy cucumovirus (TAV), tomato spotted wilt tospovirus (TSWV), impatiens necrotic spot tospovirus (INSV), tobacco mosaic tobamovirus (TMV), potato virus × potexvirus (PVX), and 80 potyviruses, using direct antibody sandwich (DAS) and indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Viral-associated double-stranded ribonucleic acid (dsRNA) analysis was used to detect an apparent satellite (sat) RNA, and northern hybridization using a digoxigenin (DIG) labeled (S) CARNA-5 cDNA probe was used to confirm the identity of the apparent satRNA. No incidences of TAV, TMV, TSWV, INSV, PVX, or potyviruses were detected. CMV was detected in 11%, AMV in 22.2%, TSV in 3.7%, and mixed infections of CMV and AMV in 1.1% of the samples. SatRNA was detected in 36 A. reptans `Royalty', two `Rainbow', and two `Burgundy Glow' samples by dsRNA analysis, and confirmed by hybridization in 29 `Royalty' and one `Burgundy Glow' samples. Sixteen A. reptans `Royalty' seedlings grown from seed harvested from CMV-infected plants were tested by ELISA for CMV, AMV, and TSV. All were positive for CMV, and two were positive for a mixed infection of CMV and AMV. SatRNA was detected in all 16 seedlings by RT-PCR.
The gas exchange of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill cv. Spring Giant VF) plants exposed to an ethephon root drench of 5 μl·liter-1 or 50 μl·liter-1 was examined for 9 days. Photosynthesis showed a biphasic response to ethephon, wherein elevations of 13.2% and 16.7% were observed over control plants for two of the measurement days for the 50 and 5 μl ethephon/liter concentrations, respectively. Stomatal conductance showed a large increase at 50 μl ethephon/liter on day 2, while 5 μl·liter -1 did not show this difference. A biphasic response of photosynthesis may explain some of the intraspecific variation found in the literature describing ethylene-induced gas-exchange alterations.
In order to gain an understanding of the capacity of severely shaded leaves to be productive in dense canopies, the effects of increased shading on morphology, dry-matter partitioning, and whole-plant net carbon exchange rate (NCER) were investigated on greenhouse-grown Vitis vinifera L. `Chardonnay' grapevines. Vines were subjected to whole-plant shading levels of 0%, 54%, 90%, and 99% of direct sun 3 weeks after potting. Data were collected 8 to 10 weeks after potting. Nonlinear regression was used to investigate the relationship of leaf morphological traits and organ dry weights to increased shading. Leaf size was maintained with increased shading to approximately the 90% shading level, while leaf fresh weight, volume, density, and thickness were immediately reduced with increased shading. Root dry weight was most affected by increased shading, and root to shoot ratio was reduced. When nonlinear regressions were produced for light response curves, light compensation point was reduced by approximately 49% by moderate shading, and 61% by severe shading. Shaded leaves approached the asymptote of the light response curve more quickly, and had reduced dark respiration rates, indicating that the morphological compensation responses by the vine allow shaded leaves to use available light more efficiently. However, the long-term ramifications of reduced root growth in the current year on vines with shaded leaves may be significant.
Potted `Chardonnay' grapevines (Vitis vinifera L.) with either two or three shoots were grown in a greenhouse for one month and then transferred to a phytotron room, where either one or two shoots were shaded. Twenty-four days after transfer, leaves at the fifth node of either the light-adapted or shade-adapted shoot were exposed to a 2-hour pulse of 14CO2. Both light environment and number of shade shoots on the vine had a significant effect on photosynthate partitioning within the plant following a 22-hour chase. Leaves fed with 14CO2 on a light-adapted shoot translocated 26.1% and 12.7% more radioactivity to the roots and trunk, respectively, than leaves from shade-adapted shoots. Photosynthates were exported from light-adapted leaves to shade-adapted shoots (1.3% of total 14C in plant). The number of shaded shoots and the light environment of the fed leaf had a large effect on partitioning of photosynthates among ethanol-insoluble, water-soluble, and chloroform-soluble fractions within the leaf. Recovered 14C in the water-soluble fraction of the fed leaf appeared to be affected more by number of shoots than by light environment of the fed leaf. The data suggest that there is a sink effect on initial carbon partitioning patterns in grapevine leaves. Sink strength may have a greater role than light environment. A large proportion of interior leaves versus exterior leaves may be costly with respect to the carbohydrate budget of a vine.