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  • Author or Editor: J. Silbernagel x
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Abstract

The ARS/USDA and the Agricultural Experiment Station of Washington State Univ. announce the release of germplasm line, FR (Fusarium Resistant)-266, a bush snap bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) line, which is resistant to Fusarium root rot caused by Fusarium solani (Mart.) Appel & Wr. f. sp phaseoli Burkh. Snyd. & Hans. FR-266 also is resistant to bean common mosaic virus (dominant I gene)(l), curly top virus, and is tolerant to white mold caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorurn (Lib.) deBary. FR-266 is the only known green-podded, white-seeded, bush snap bean line that has this unique combination of multiple disease resistance factors.

Open Access

Abstract

ARS/USDA and the Agricultural Experiment Station of Washington State Univ. announce the germplasm release of an Italian-style, flat-podded snap bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) line, VR (Virus Resistant)-Ro-mano, VR-Romano is unique in this class of snap beans because it is resistant to curly top virus and carries the dominant I gene resistance to bean common mosaic virus (1).

Open Access

Dry seed of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) breeding line S-593 was treated with 200 Gy of gamma radiation, and M2 seed was produced. The seed was planted at Prosser, Wash., and selection was made for plants with greatly reduced seed set. The inheritance of one of the selections for possible male sterility mutation was studied in F2, F3, and backcross generations. This character is controlled by a single recessive gene, for which the symbol ms-1 is proposed. Plants carrying ms-l/ms-1 produce well-filled pods after manual pollination with pollen from normal plants, but produce no seed when protected from insect pollination in greenhouse and field environments. Uses for this mutant are discussed.

Free access

Abstract

‘Blue Mountain’ snap bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is a bush Blue Lake-type developed for commercial processing, home-garden, and market-garden use. It is resistant to Bean Common Mosaic Virus (BCMV), I gene, and Curly Top Virus (CTV), definite advantages in the seed production regions of the intermountain western states. ‘Blue Mountain’ is adapted to mechanical harvesting, and does well in either standard row widths or in high-density culture. Unlike many Blue Lake-types, ‘Blue Mountain’ picks clean (minimal leaves, stems, etc.) when mechanically harvested and its through-the-plant flow is comparable to ‘Tendercrop’. ‘Blue Mountain’ does well in the warmer dry climates found in the arid western states and in the mid-western and northeastern production areas. ‘Blue Mountain’ is not well-suited for production in the cool-cloudy Willamette Valley, where most of Oregon’s Blue Lake beans are grown. Plant and pod appearance resemble ‘Tendercrop’, but the processed pods have flavor, color, and quality that are comparable to ‘Blue Lake’. As a processing bean, ‘Blue Mountain’ is suitable for canning and freezing, cut or french-style pack. Its appearance and flavor will appeal to home and market gardeners.

Open Access

Abstract

Irrigation method and row spacing had a significant influence on the quality of fresh, canned, and frozen snap beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Sprinkle irrigated fresh and canned snap beans contained more ascorbic acid than rill irrigated snap beans. Rill irrigated snap beans had more intense color, lower shear values, less turbid brine, and less drained weight loss. Canned snap beans grown in narrow rows had less drained weight loss than snap beans from wide rows. Frozen snap beans from narrow rows had more drip loss, less moisture, increased soluble solids, and increased ascorbic acid content than those from wide rows. Under the conditions of this study, rill irrigated snap beans and snap beans grown in narrow rows did have quality advantages over sprinkle irrigated snap beans and snap beans grown in wide rows.

Open Access

Abstract

A “seed index” based on the product of seed weight by length was positively correlated with the fiber development of large- and medium-sieved snap beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) whether fresh or canned. Fresh seed index values which are easier to measure than fiber, can be used to estimate canned product quality rapidly and inexpensively. It is suggested that cultivars be compared for yield, days and/or heat units to harvest maturity, sieve size distribution and quality when at least 95% of the harvested pods are within fancy Grade as determined by the seed index.

Open Access

Abstract

Low temperature and oxygen stresses were imposed during the first 48 hr of germination on 2 lines of snap bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), stress tolerant (PI-165426-BS) and stress-sensitive (‘Goldcrop’). At 22°C, O2 concentrations of 0%, 1%, and 2% increased leakage from the seeds, delayed emergence, and reduced growth, compared to 5% and 21% O2. These effects were aggravated by reducing the initial seed moisture from 12% to 8% in ‘Goldcrop’, but not in PI-165426-BS. At 10°, the effect of oxygen deficiency was minimized. Low temperatures inhibited growth of ‘Goldcrop’, but not of PI-165426-BS, and increased leakage from seeds of both lines. The survival of seeds exposed to the low temperature decreased when initial seed moisture was reduced from 12% to 8%. Flooding the seeds for 24 hr increased leakage and reduced emergence and growth much more than 24 hr of complete anoxia. Since the effects of anoxia are different than flooding injury, a mechanism of flooding injury not related to oxygen deficiency is discussed.

Open Access

Blackleaf (a.k.a. chocolate leaf) is of worldwide concern in Vitis due to its negative impact on fruit ripening, yield reduction and overall stress on grapevines. Research suggests blackleaf is induced by high levels of UV radiation and overall light intensity, which induce color changes (purple-brown-black) in exposed leaves, resulting in >50% reduction in photosynthesis. The ability to detect blackleaf symptoms before expression can provide insight into metabolic stresses and the possibility of the use and/or timing of management practices to reduce its impact. Remotely sensed imagery and spatial analysis may elucidate reflectance-related processes and symptoms not apparent to the un-aided eye. In this research we mapped canopy growth (leaves/shoot and shoots/vine), metabolic triggers (photosynthesis, leaf water potential, soil moisture), and percent blackleaf expression within vineyards using global positioning system (GPS), infrared gas analyzer, and digital remotely-sensed images. Each image and data record was stored as an attribute associated with specific vine location within a geographical information system (GIS). Spatial maps were created from the GIS coverages to graphically present the progression of blackleaf across vineyards throughout the season. Analysis included summary statistics such as minimum, maximum, and variation of green reflectance, within a vineyard by image capture date. Additionally, geostatistics were used to model the degree of similarity between blackleaf values as a function of their spatial location. Continuing research will be aimed at identifying spectral characteristics of early season stresses due to UV light, water stress, and reduced photosynthetic capacity. Spatial relationships between early season stress and later blackleaf expression will be assessed using joint spatial dependence measures. Overall, information obtained through digital image and spatial analysis will supplement site level information for growers.

Free access

Research suggests that blackleaf (a leaf disorder in grape, Vitis labrusca L.) is induced by high levels of ultra violet (UV) radiation and overall light intensity, resulting in color changes (purple-brown-black) for sun-exposed leaves of the outer canopy, and a corresponding >50% reduction in photosynthesis. Metabolic indicators (photosynthesis and leaf water potential), percent blackleaf expression, and full spectrum leaf reflectance were mapped within vineyards using global positioning system (GPS) and digital remotely-sensed images. Each image and data record was stored as an attribute associated with a specific vine location within a geographical information system (GIS). Spatial maps were created from the GIS coverages to graphically present the progression of blackleaf across vineyards throughout the season. Analysis included summary statistics such as minimum, maximum, and variation of green reflectance, within a vineyard by image capture date. Additionally, geostatistics were used to model the degree of similarity between blackleaf values as a function of their spatial location. Remote-image analysis indicated a decrease in percent greenness of about 45% between July and August, which was related to a decrease in photosynthesis and an increase in blackleaf symptom expression within the canopy. Examination of full spectral leaf reflectance indicated differences at specific wavelengths for grape leaves exposed to UV or water-deficit stress. This work suggests that remote-image and leaf spectral reflectance analysis may be a strong tool for monitoring changes in metabolism associated with plant stress.

Free access