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  • Author or Editor: J. Scott Ebdon x
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Reestablishment of damaged golf greens and fairways planted to creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera), colonial bentgrass (A. capillaris), and velvet bentgrass (A. canina) is a common practice following winter injuries. Identifying bentgrass species (Agrostis sp.) and cultivars with the potential to establish under low soil temperatures would be beneficial to achieving more mature stands earlier in the spring. Twelve bentgrass cultivars, including seven cultivars of creeping bentgrass (007, 13-M, Declaration, L-93, Memorial, Penncross, and T-1), two colonial bentgrass cultivars (Capri and Tiger II), and three velvet bentgrass cultivars (Greenwich, SR-7200, and Villa), along with ‘Barbeta’ perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) were evaluated for grass cover in the field during early spring. Bentgrass species and cultivars were seeded in the field at the same seed count per unit area. Soil temperatures were monitored in unseeded check plots from initial planting date on 8 Apr. to termination on 29 May 2013. Soil temperatures increased linearly during the 52-day experimental period from 4.7 to 23.5 °C. All species and cultivars emerged at ≈10 °C soil temperature. Bentgrass species and cultivars varied only 2 to 3 days in their initial seedling emergence, while days varied among bentgrasses from 5.5 days (to 10% cover) to 8.6 days (to 90% cover). All velvet bentgrass cultivars required higher soil temperatures (13.6 °C) and more time (26 days) following initial seedling emergence to establish to 90% cover in the early spring. Creeping bentgrass cultivars 007, 13-M, and Memorial, along with colonial bentgrass cultivars Capri and Tiger II, were statistically equal to ‘Barbeta’ perennial ryegrass in their capacity after seedling emergence to achieve faster cover at lower soil temperatures. Heavier (larger) bentgrass seed was associated with faster cover during the early stages of establishment, but seed size was uncorrelated with establishment during later stages from 50% to 90% cover.

Open Access

Reseeding of creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera L.) under unfavorable temperature (≈10 °C) is a common practice on golf putting greens and fairways. Seed priming to enhance germination and early emergence increases seeding success. Seed priming comparing abscisic acid (ABA), gibberellic acid (GA), glycinebetaine (GB), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and polyethylene glycol (PEG) has not been investigated in turfgrass. Our objective was to compare these chemical primers at three concentrations with water- and unprimed-seed at two competing germinating temperatures (10 vs. 25 °C). Two seed lots of ‘T-1’ creeping bentgrass were compared. Curve fitting of daily germination was used to compute days to 50% germination (D50) and maximum germination percentage (Gmax). Cold (10 °C) significantly inhibited emergence (higher D50) more than Gmax. The effects of primers and their rates varied with the seed lot and temperature. Enhancement of seed germination measured as early emergence (lower D50) and/or higher Gmax were only detected at 10 °C. Osmotic primers (GB and PEG) were most effective in promoting germination relative to unprimed seed followed by hormone primers (ABA and GA) with redox primers (H2O2) least effective. Glycinebetaine primed seed was the only primer effective at all concentrations, with the 100 mм concentration the only concentration to enhance germination by increasing both Gmax and early emergence (lower D50) compared with unprimed seed.

Open Access