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- Author or Editor: J. Reid x
A device was designed to permit accurate and rapid measurement of the abscission or removal force of peaches when used with a mechanical force gauge. To handle fruit of different sizes, small and large units were constructed. A detail drawing of the two units is shown. This instrument was used to study the physiology of abscission, chemicals for thinning, and chemicals for uniform ripening of peaches for mechanical harvesting as related to the removal force.
Carolina buckthorn [Rhamnus caroliniana Walt. or Frangula caroliniana (Walt.) Gray] is an attractive and water-stress-resistant shrub or small tree distributed extensively in the southeastern United States that merits use in managed landscapes. Due to substantial climatic differences within its distribution (30-year normal midwinter minima range from 13 to -8 °C), selection among provenances based on differences in cold hardiness is warranted. Before selections are marketed, the potential of carolina buckthorn to be invasive also merits investigation. Ecological problems resulting from the introduction of Rhamnus L. species in the United States, most notably the dominance of R. cathartica L. (common buckthorn) over neighboring taxa, are due in part to early budbreak. Consequently, we investigated depth of cold hardiness and vernal budbreak of carolina buckthorn and common buckthorn. Stem samples of carolina buckthorn and common buckthorn collected in midwinter survived temperatures as low as -21 and -24 °C, respectively. Although the cold hardiness of carolina buckthorns from Missouri was greater than that of carolina buckthorns from Ohio and Texas on 2 Apr. 2003, there were no differences in cold hardiness of stems from Missouri and Texas on all three assessment dates in the second experiment. All plants survived at both field locations except for the carolina buckthorns from southern Texas planted in Iowa, which showed 0% and 17% survival in 2003 and 2004, respectively. Budbreak of both species with and without mulch in Ames, Iowa, was recorded from 9 Apr. to 10 May 2002. Mean budbreak of common buckthorn was 5.7 days earlier than budbreak of carolina buckthorn, and buds of mulched carolina buckthorns broke 4.2 days earlier than did buds of unmulched carolina buckthorns. We conclude that the cold hardiness of carolina buckthorn is sufficient to permit the species to be planted outside of its natural distribution. Populations of carolina buckthorn in Ohio and Missouri should be the focus of efforts to select genotypes for use in regions with harsh winters. Phenology of its budbreak suggests carolina buckthorn will not be as invasive as common buckthorn, but evaluation of additional determinants of invasiveness is warranted.
Can Carolina buckthorn (Rhamnuscaroliniana) persist north of its native habitat without becoming invasive? Its distribution (USDA zones 5b to 9b) suggests that genotypes vary in cold hardiness, and invasiveness of other Rhamnus sp. has been linked to unusually early budbreak each spring. Therefore, we investigated depth of cold hardiness and vernal budbreak of Carolina buckthorns from multiple provenances and made comparisons to the invasive common buckthorn (Rhamnus cathartica). Budbreak was recorded in Ames, Iowa, from 9 Apr. to 10 May 2002. Buds of common buckthorn broke earlier than those of Carolina buckthorn, and mulching plants of Carolina buckthorn hastened budbreak. Stem samples were collected in October, January, and April from a plot in Ames, Iowa (USDA zone 5a), of Carolina buckthorns from three provenances (Missouri, Ohio, and Texas) and of naturalized common buckthorns. A similar schedule was followed during the next winter, when two plot locations [Ames, Iowa, and New Franklin, Mo. (USDA zone 5b)], were compared, but Carolina buckthorns from only Missouri and Texas were sampled. Carolina buckthorn and common buckthorn survived midwinter temperatures as low as –21 °C and –24 °C, respectively. Provenance differences were minimal; Carolina buckthorns from Missouri were more hardy than those from Ohio and Texas only in April of the first winter. We conclude that its cold hardiness will permit use of Carolina buckthorn beyond where it is distributed in the southeastern United States. Delayed budbreak of Carolina buckthorn relative to that of common buckthorn may underscore the potential for Carolina buckthorn in regions with harsh winters and may lessen its potential to be as invasive as common buckthorn.
Establishment and growth of eastern redbud (Cercis canadensis L.) and pecan [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch] were studied where soil surfaces were either covered with each of three common turfgrass species or maintained free of vegetation by the use of an herbicide or an organic mulch layer. Turf species included two cool-season grasses, tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) and Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L.), and the warm-season bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.]. After two growing seasons, tree caliper of both species was 100% greater in turf-free plots compared with trees in the cool-season grass plots. Root weight of pecans increased nearly 200% when turf was eliminated, and redbud root weight increased nearly 300%. Top weight of redbuds increased 300% and pecans increased 200% when turf was eliminated. Total leaf weight of both species was 300% greater in the turf-free plots, and leaf area increased 200% in both species. Net photosynthesis of redbud trees tended to be higher in the plots without turfgrass, and cool-season grasses inhibited photosynthesis to a greater extent than the warm-season grass. Foliar tissue analysis revealed that nitrogen (N) and potassium (K) were the only elements that increased in concentration when turf was eliminated. However, nutrient concentrations in all treatments were within recommended standard ranges. The results suggest that landscape tree establishment and growth are greatly inhibited by the presence of cool-season turfgrasses and that the inhibition may be more complicated than resource competition.
A description for the design and use of a flowing solution culture for the mung bean bioassay is presented. A single module for the system is an assembly of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) pipe, Tygon tubing, and 12 hypodermic syringe barrels to accomodate 60 cuttings of mung bean, Vigna radiata (L.) R. Wilcz, (5 per syringe barrel). Solution is circulated by an electric fluid pump. A comparison of this system with conventional vial culture indicates no difference in mean root numbers and their standard deviation, although a more stable solution pH is maintained in the flowing system. In the vial system, pH drifted by as much as 1.4 units within 12 hours, but only 0.2 units in the flowing system. The system presented is ideal for investigations where a stable rooting environment is required.
Ribosomes were isolated from styles, receptacles, and petals of cut ‘White Sim’ carnation flowers (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) during flower senescence. In all flower parts the percentage of polysomes decreased for a few days after cutting and then increased coincident with the surge of ethylene production in the final stages of floral senescence. Changes in the polysomal population in petals excised from the same flower at progressive stages of its senescence were identical with those obtained from petals excised from different flowers at similar stages of senescence. The polysomal data confirm the occurrence of increased protein synthesis coincident with ethylene production and the senescence of cut carnation flowers.
Successful establishment and growth of newly planted trees in the landscape is dependent on many factors. Weed pressure and water conservation are typically achieved with either organic mulches or chemical herbicides applied over the root ball of the newly planted tree. In the landscape, eliminating turfgrass from the root zone of trees may be more complicated than resource competition. Studies have shown that tall fescue (Festucaarundinaceae Schreb.) has allelopathic properties on pecan trees [Caryaillinoiensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch]. Well-manicured tall fescue turf in the landscape may have negative effects on the establishment and growth of landscape trees as well. A study was designed to examine the effects of popular turfgrasses on the growth of newly planted pecan and redbud (Cerciscanadensis L.). Results demonstrate that the presence of turfgrass over the root zone of trees negatively impacts tree growth. Through two growing seasons, every growth parameter measured on redbuds (caliper, height, shoot growth, shoot dry weight, root dry weight, leaf area, and leaf weight) was significantly reduced by the presence of turf. However, the warm season bermudagrass [Cynodondactylon (L.) Pers.] was less inhibitied than the cool season grasses. The affects of turfgrass on pecan growth was less significant; however, caliper, leaf area, and root dry weight were significantly reduced when grown with turf.
Economic and environmental concerns have increased the need for quantitative advice on fertilizer rates. In addition, it would aid researchers to be able to estimate the degree to which nutrient availability is affecting yield in a wide variety of field experiments. All of these needs can, in principle, be addressed using the new PARJIB model. PARJIB retains the functional simplicity of much earlier analytical models of crop responses to soil test values and fertiliser application rates. However, in a key departure from previous approaches, response to scaled nutrient supply indices is dictated by the potential yield adjusted for plant population and water stress. The version currently being evaluated simulates responses to supply of N, P, K and Mg, varying either singly or in combination. We have calibrated the model for sweet corn, carrots, and snap bean crops grown under temperate conditions in a wide range of soils. Simulated yields agreed well with observed values; the root mean square error was 8% to 13%, and regressions of observed against simulated yields passed through the origin with slopes that were not significantly different from 1. After calibration, the model predicted strong interactions between nutrient supply, plant population and water stress. PARJIB appears to have substantial potential to improve nutrient management for horticultural crops.
Frequent episodes of water stress in managed landscapes have led the nursery industry to look for attractive woody species that perform well under extreme conditions of drought and flooding. We chose to evaluate three taxa with highly localized natural distributions in the United States, Calycanthus occidentalis (north–central California), Fraxinus anomala (northeastern Utah), and Pinckneya pubens (northeastern Florida), each of which may merit further use under cultivated conditions beyond their respective ranges. Although widespread cultivation of each taxon may not be possible as a result of limitations related to cold hardiness, we hypothesized that each species can tolerate extremes in soil moisture availability more so than their native habitats imply. Our objective was to characterize, under greenhouse conditions, how the quantity of soil water affects gas exchange of potted plants of each species. Plants were divided into five groups, each exposed to treatment conditions ranging from complete submersion to severe drought. Complete submersion killed plants of C. occidentalis and F. anomala, although in drought or severe drought conditions, C. occidentalis plants had lower net photosynthesis and less leaf area and plant dry weight than control plants. Net photosynthesis, leaf area, and plant dry weight of partially flooded plants, however, were not found to be significantly less than that of the control plants. Mean net photosynthetic levels and plant dry weights of severe drought, drought, and control F. anomala did not differ. While severe drought plants of P. pubens exhibited much lower levels of net photosynthesis, but not plant dry weights or leaf area, than the control plants, those exposed to drought, partial flood, and complete submersion were not found to differ in net photosynthesis levels from the control plants. Due to the sustained tolerance of F. anomala and P. pubens to a range of extreme soil moisture conditions, as exhibited by net photosynthetic responses, carbon accumulation, and survival, we conclude that use of these species in landscapes is warranted if invasiveness and other potential problems are not identified. Calycanthus occidentalis, however, appears unsuitable for cultivation in areas with organic soils greater than ≈66% and lower than ≈30% soil moisture content as a result of its high mortality in flooded conditions and poor physiological responses under dry conditions.