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- Author or Editor: J. Ray Frank x
The terms “Integrated Pest Management” or “IPM” were considered buzz words or catch phrases in the 1960s, ideas for possible consideration during much of the 1970s, and are now considered of prime importance during the 1980s.
More than 14,000 ornamental research trials have been conducted in this program since 1977. This extensive research program has led to more than 4900 label registrations for fungicides, herbicides, insecticides, nematicides, and plant growth regulators. During 1996 alone, 890 ornamental label registrations were obtained. This cooperative program is conducted by federal and state workers in cooperation with the green industry,including growers of floral, forestry, nursery, and turf crops. Registrations are also developed for the commercial landscape and the interior plantscape.
Field growing nonfruiting strawberries (Fragaria x ananassa Duch. ‘Midway’) were treated with (methyl-14C) glyphosate (N-(phosphono-methyl)glycine] applied to the leaves of runner plants rapidly developing at the nodes of stolons. Seven days after application, 14C was distributed throughout the stolon and untreated new runner plants. The greatest accumulation of 14C was found in the stolon and in the runner plants distal to the application site. When the distal runner plant was treated, most of the 14C was recovered from the application site. Depending upon the treatment, from 2.9% to 11.5% of the recovered 14C activity was located in the mother plant.
Since the IR-4 Project for Ornamental Uses was initiated in 1977, over 13,500 research trials have been conducted. This effort has lead to over 3100 label-registrations for fungicides, herbicides, insecticides, nematicides and growth regulators.
This cooperative program is conducted by Federal and State workers in conjunction with growers of nursery, floral crop and landscape plant materials.
Sequential applications of granular oxyfluorfen (2 G) at 3.3 kg a.i.·ha−1, oxadiazon (2 G) at 3.3 kg a.i.·ha−1, napropamide (10 G) at 4.5 kg a.i.·ha−1, and chlorpropham (20 G) at 1.1 kg a.i.·ha−1 were evaluated for weed control in newly planted Rhododendron obtusum (Lindl.) Planch cv. Hinocrimson azaleas in the field. Granular oxyfluorfen, oxadiazon, or napropamide applied twice per season controlled 99%, 77%, or 73% of the weeds, respectively, for 2 years. A combination of napropamide, oxyfluorfen, and oxadiazon applied twice per season controlled >99% of the weeds at the season's end. Single seasonal applications of oxyfluorfen or oxadiazon controlled 63% and 77% of the weeds, respectively. Phytotoxicity to azaleas was not observed with any treatment. Chemical names used: 2-chloro-l-(3-ethoxy-4-nitrophenoxy)-4-(trifluoromethyel)benzene (oxyfluorfen); 3-[2,4-dichloro-5-(l-methylethoxy)phenyl]-5-(l,l-dimethylethyl)-l,3,4-oxadiazol-2(3 H)-one (oxadiazon); 2-(α-napththoxy)-N,N-diethylpropionamide (napropamide); and 1-methylethyl 3-chlorophenyl carbamate (chlorpropham).
A single postemergence application of sethoxydim at 0.5 or 1.0 kg a.i./ha or fluazifop at 1.0 kg a.i./ha controlled established seedlings of slender foxtail (Alo-pecurus myosuroides Huds.) and large crabgrass [Digitada sanguinalis (L.) Scop.] in field-grown Rhododendron obtusum (Lindl.) Planch ‘Delaware Valley White’, ‘Hinocrimson’, and ‘Hershey Red’ azaleas. No significant phytotoxicity symptoms were observed on ‘Delaware Valley White’ or ‘Hershey Red’ azaleas, but ‘Hinocrimson’ azaleas treated with fluazifop at 0.50 or 1.0 kg a.i./ha were significantly injured for up to 82 days. The growth of ‘Hinocrimson’ azaleas also was reduced significantly when observed 82 days after treatment with fluazifop at 0.25, 0.50, or 1.0 kg a.i./ha or sethoxydim at 1.0 kg a.i./ha. ‘Hinocrimson’ azaleas treated with a single application of fluazifop at 1.0 kg a.i./ha were significantly smaller 15 months after treatment. Chemical names used: 2-[l-(ethoxyimino)butyl]-5-[2-(ethylthio)propyl]-3-hydroxy-2-cyclo-hexen-l-one (sethoxydim) and (±)-2-[4-[[5-(trifluoromethyl)-2-pyridinyl] oxy]phenoxy]propanoic acid (fluazifop).
Five field experiments compared weed control systems for snap bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) production in 25-cm rows including herbicides, but no cultivation, to systems for conventional 91-cm rows including both herbicides and cultivation. Herbicide combinations of EPTC + dinoseb each at 3.4 kg/ha, EPTC at 3.4 kg/ha + bentazon at 0.8 kg/ha, and trifluralin at 0.6 kg/ha + bentazon at 0.8 kg/ha provided excellent control of annual weeds and yellow nutsedge in most experiments. With the most effective herbicide treatments, weed control was similar in 25-cm and 91-cm rows. However, when herbicide treatments failed to control all weed species, weed control in 91-cm rows was better than that in 25-cm rows, because 91-cm rows were cultivated. Snap beans in 25-cm rows yielded an average of 25% higher than snap beans in 91-cm rows (plant density was equivalent at both row spacings). As weed control improved, the magnitude of the yield difference between 25-cm and 91-cm row spacings increased.
Two annual applications of oxyfluorfen (2-chloro-1-(3-ethoxy-4-nitrophenoxy)-4-(trifluoromethyl)benzene), oxadiazon (2-tert-butyl-4(2,4-dichloro-5-isopropoxyphenyl)-Δ2-1,3,4-oxadiazolin-5-one) or prodiamine (2,4-dinitro-N3,N3-dipropyl-6-(trifluoromethyl)-1,3-benzenediamine) at 4.5 kg/ha controlled 80% of the weeds in several cultivars of newly-planted or established azaleas. Significant early season injury was observed in 1980 on ‘Hershey Red’, ‘Hinocrimson’, and ‘Delaware Valley White’ azaleas treated with DCPA (dimethyl tetrachloroterephthalate) at 11.2 kg/ha. Established ‘Hinocrimson’ azaleas treated with oxyfluorfen at 4.5 kg/ha were significantly larger than the control plants at the end of these experiments.
The pest management industry does not have adequate financial incentives to develop the required data to register pest management tools with government authorities on fruit, vegetables, herbs, spices, nursery crops, landscape plants, flowers, turfgrass, and other specialty crops. Growers of these crops, collectively called minor crops, need pest control tools to be able to sustain production. The Interregional Research Project Number Four (IR-4) was established in 1963 by the U.S. Department of Agriculture to assist growers of minor crops by providing a mechanism to allow growers of these crops to have access to safe and effective pest management tools. Working with research, industrial and extension personnel at the state land-grant institutions and researchers at USDA, Agricultural Research Service, IR-4 develops the appropriate data to support registration of insecticides, fungicides, herbicides and plant growth regulators. Many of the uses of plant growth regulators in current use were developed with oversight provided by IR-4. There are many promising new plant growth regulators and/or uses in the commercial development pipeline and it is anticipated that assistance from IR-4 will be needed to support registration of these new materials on minor crops.
Researchers working with strawberries often find it necessary to size, grade, count, and weigh the fruit (1, 2, 3, 4). These tasks present problems when the research involves a large number of test plots. Size-yield classifications of hand-sorted fruit are not only time-consuming, but are subject to human error. A strawberry sorter for research use was developed to reduce these problems.