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- Author or Editor: J. R. Morris x
Supplemental Ca was supplied to `Cardinal' and `Fern' strawberry (Fragaria ×ananassa Duch.) plants grown in an Enders clayey silt loam soil as a foliar spray of Ca glutarate, as soil incorporated gypsum, as fertigated calcium nitrate (CaNO3), or as a combination of the above. Controls received no Ca. Individual fruits were partitioned into six parts: proximal, distal, inner and outer receptacle, and proximal and distal achenes. Mineral nutrient concentrations (dry mass basis) found in the inner and outer receptacle, and in achenes were, in descending order, K, P, Ca, Mg, Al, Na, Fe, Mn, Zn, B, and Cu; K, P, Ca, Mg, Na, Mn, Fe, Zn, Al, B, and Cu; and Ca, P, Mg, K, Na, Fe, Mn, Zn, Al, Cu, and B, respectively. Many nutrients, including Ca, tended to occur in greater concentrations in the proximal portion of the fruit than in the distal part. With the exception of Al, nutrient concentration gradients were lowest in the inner receptacle. Fruit Ca concentrations were highest in achenes and lowest in inner receptacle tissue. Differences among cultivars in Ca concentration were found in achenes but not in receptacle tissue. Calcium treatment had no effect on receptacle tissue Ca concentrations, regardless of cultivar, but CaNO3 and combination treatments increased Ca concentrations in the achenes in the proximal half of `Cardinal' fruit. Concentrations of all other nutrients except Mn were unaffected by supplemental Ca treatments.
Supplemental calcium supplied foliariy as Ca glutarate, soil incorporated as gypsum, fertigated as CaNO3, in 3-way combination, or none at all, had no effect on fruit firmness, as measured by shear, reduced fruit decay by as much as 23%. over controls (1986-1988), and generally improved fruit Ca levels only in the combination treatment of 904 kg/ha. Fruit raw product quality (pulp pH, acidity, soluble solids concentration, and Hunter color values) were not consistently affected, although there were significant interactions between cvs Fern and Cardinal, harvest dates, holding time, and years. Supplemental Ca reduced fruit size, but tended to increase yield. In 1988, individual fruits were partitioned into upper/lower, dermal/interior, and upper/lower seeds (6 parts), Ca was the third most abundant mineral nutrient in receptacle tissue, but most abundant in seeds. Highest Ca levels were found (descendingly) in the seed, dermal, and interior pulp tissue, Ca was higher in the upper (stem) end. Differences in fruit Ca levels between cvs were found in the seeds and not the receptacle. No clear relationship was observed between fruit firmness, decay, and Ca level.
Fruit of `Cardinal' and `Fern' were harvested, acid washed, decapped, and frozen to -20° C on 6 May 88. Frozen fruits were subsequently divided into six parts. The upper and lower fruit halves were further separated into pulp, dermal, and seed components. Nutrients increased from the pulp to the seed with the exception of Al. K was most abundant in receptacle tissue (but not in seeds) followed by P, Ca, and Mg. K, Ca, Mg, and Cu were higher and Mn and Zn lower in pulp upper tissue than lower pulp tissue. K, Ca, Na, Zn, and A1 were higher in upper dermal tissue than in lower dermal tissue. Ca, Cu, and B were higher and Mg and Mn lower in upper octanes than in lower achenes. In descending order, Ca, P, Mg, and K were the most abundant seed nutrients. Supplementing strawberries with 904 Kg Ca/ha increased only the seed Ca levels. All levels of supplemental pre-harvest Ca were found to reduce postharvest decay. Although `Fern' was higher in seed Ca, with similar Ca levels in receptacle tissue, fruit decay was higher than in `Cardinal'. There appears to be no clear relationship between fruit decay and Ca distribution within the fruit.
Three cultivars of strawberries (Fragaria × ananassa Duch. cvs. Cardinal, A-5344, and Earlibelle) were harvested once-over by machine in 1975 and 1976 and separated into green and ripe fruit. Preserves and jam were manufactured from different combinations of sliced, ripe fruits, puree from ripe and from green fruit, then stored at 2°, 24° and 35°C for 0, 4 and 9 months. There were differences among cultivars and treatments in color attributes and sensory quality but both preserves and jams were highly acceptable from all cultivars and treatments. The greatest change in color and sensory quality was caused by storage at 35° for 4 and 9 months. Green fruit did not affect storage stability and development of browning. As much as half immature, green fruit can be used in the manufacture of preserves and jams without affecting quality in highly-colored cultivars.
Succinic acid -2,2-dimethylhydrazide (daminozide, SADH) applied at first-bloom or peak-bloom at 1000, 2000, or 3000 ppm did not statistically alter yield in 1969. 1000 ppm applied between first- and peak-bloom in 1970 increased yield over the control, but no yield advantage was obtained at 500, 750, or 1000 ppm in 1971. Yield increases were due mainly to increases in the number of berries/cluster when daminozide was applied during early bloom as compared to application during verasion. Berry weight was reduced when the number of berries/cluster increased. Juice quality and vegetative growth of the grapevine generally decreased as yields increased due to daminozide application. Delaying harvest of grapevines partially overcame the retardation in maturity resulting from daminozide treatment.
‘Carlos’ muscadine grapes (Vitis rotundifolia Michx.) were sorted into 5 density grades using 4 brine solutions of 8, 9, 10 and 11% NaCl. Soluble solids and berry weight increased, color improved, and acidity decreased with grape maturity and brine concentration. Panelist’s sensory preference increased with increasing density (maturity). Berries that floated and sank in 11% NaCl (density grades 4 and 5) had acceptable ratings for flavor, aroma, and color. Density separation was used to monitor the rates of maturation of the cultivars ‘Carlos’ and ‘Noble’. The technique was useful in characterizing the changes in berry population during the last month of ripening.
Glyphosate (N-phosphonomethyl glycine) was applied to low-hanging foliage and basal shoots of ‘Concord’ grapevines (Vitis labrusca L.) at 2.2 and 4.4 kg/ha in August, September, and October 1979. All treatments were extremely injurious to grapevines. Injury was evident throughout the grapevine the following spring and during the full growing season. Growth on new shoots, visual ratings of growth reduction during the season, grape yield, and pruning weights indicate 50% or more reduction in growth as compared to the untreated check. The September treatment appeared more injurious than the August or October treatments.
Midsummer grapehoeing following spring application of diuron [3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea] or simazine [2-chloro-4,6-bis(ethylamino)-s-triazine] plus paraquat (1,1’-dimethyl-4,4’-bipyridinium ion) adequately controlled weeds growing in grapes (Vitis labrusca L.). When grapehoeing was used to control grape root borer [(Vitacea polistiformis Harris) lower initial rates of preemergence herbicide could be used. An additional half-rate of herbicide was required after grapehoeing to maintain weed control through the fall. Plots not grapehoed were almost completely weed free following a glyphosate [N-(phosphonomethyl)glycine] treatment. Injury to grapes the following spring was associated with fall glyphosate applications where low hanging foliage, that had not been removed, intercepted the spray. Glyphosate was most effective and paraquat more effective than dinoseb (2-sec-buty1-4,6-dinitrophenol) plus diesel fuel for postemergence control of weeds in grapes. Preemergence herbicides, napropamide [2-(α-naphthoxy)-N,N-diethylpropionamide], norflurazon [4-chloro-5-(methylamino)-2-(α,α,α-trifluoro-m-tolyl)-3(2H)-pyridazinone], oxadiazon [2-tert-buty1-4-(2,4-dichloro-5-isopropoxyphenyl)-∆2-l,3,4-oxadiazolin-5-one], oryzalin (3,5-dinitro-N 4,N 4-dipropylsulfanilamide), and oxyfluorfen [2-chloro-1-(3-ethoxy-4-nitrophenoxy)-4-(trifluoromethyl)benzene], were effective as residual type treatments.