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  • Author or Editor: J. Nienhuis x
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Abstract

A “gynoecious synthetic” (GS) population, developed by random mating of 50 adapted Cucumis sativus L. cultivars and breeding lines, and a “hardwickii semi-exotic” (HSE) population, developed by open-pollinating an F2 population derived from a cross between a Cucumis sativus var. hardwickii (R.) Alef. accession LJ 90430 and a gynoecious inbred line GY 14, were subjected simultaneously to S1 line (S1 and reciprocal full-sib (RFS) recurrent selection. S1 selection resulted in increased fruit number per plant in the GS and HSE populations, and in the GS × HSE population hybrid. In contrast, RFS selection did not result in increased fruit number per plant in the GS and HSE populations or their hybrid. The contrasting responses to S1 compared to RFS selection suggests that additive gene effects were more important than nonadditive effects in the expression of fruit number per plant. Correlated responses to selection resulted in increased number of days to harvest in the GS population, and in reduced percentages of gynoecious plants and pistillate flowers in the HSE population. No change in fruit firmness, and a reduction in length : diameter ratio of fruit only in the GS × HSE population hybrid developed through S1 selection, suggests that selection for increased fruit number per plant should not adversely affect these fruit quality characteristics in either the GS or HSE populations.

Open Access
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Abstract

Recurrent half-sib selection within a heterogeneous population of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) was effective in improving germination at 15°C from 34.4% in cycle 0 to 92.4% in cycle 3. The linear regression coefficient indicated an average increase of 19.8% units per cycle of selection. Correlated responses to selection resulted in increased percentage of germination at 20° and 25° and decreased days to germination at 15°, 20°, and 25°.

Open Access

Abstract

Seeds from three cycles of recurrent selection in a heterogeneous cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) population for improved percentage of germination at 15°C were subjected to five treatments and evaluated for percentage of emergence and average number of days to emergence at 15°, 20°, and 25° under controlled conditions. Treatments included dry seed, imbibed seed, and pregerminated seed in combination with a supporting gel at sowing. Results indicate that the mechanism for improved low temperature germination is not due to enhanced imbibition. Data also suggest that the percentage of emergence of imbibed seed with or without gel is complemented by the genetic potential to germinate at low temperatures and that no such complementation exists for pregerminated seed. Percentage of emergence of dry and imbibed seed with or without gel at 15° was improved while selecting only for improved germination at 15°, indicating a correlated response to selection.

Open Access

Genetic differences among eleven cultivated and eight wild-type populations of North American ginseng (Panax quinquefolium L.) and four cultivated populations of South Korean ginseng (P. ginseng C.A. Meyer) were estimated using RAPD markers. Cultivated P. ginseng population samples were collected from four regions of S. Korea. Cultivated P. quinquefolium population samples were collected from three regions in North America: Wisconsin, the Southeastern Appalachian region of the United States, and Canada. Wild-type P. quinquefolium was collected from three states in the United States: Pennsylvania, Tennessee, and Wisconsin. Evaluation of germplasm with 10 decamer primers resulted in 100 polymorphic bands. Genetic differences among populations indicate heterogeneity. The genetic distance among individuals was estimated using the ratio of discordant bands to total bands scored. Multidimensional scaling of the relationship matrix showed independent clusters corresponding to the distinction of species, geographical region, and wild versus cultivated types. The integrity of the clusters was confirmed using pooled chi-square tests for fragment homogeneity.

Free access

The development of a complete linkage map, including both classical (visible) and molecular markers, is important to understand the genetic relationships among different traits in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). The objective of this study was to integrate classical marker genes into previously constructed molecular linkage maps in common bean. Bulked segregant analysis was used to identify 10 random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers linked to genes for five classical marker traits: dark green savoy leaf (dgs), blue flower (blu), silvery [Latin: argentum] green pod (arg), yellow wax pod (y) and flat pod (a spontaneous mutation from round to flat pod in `Hialeah' snap bean). The genes for dark green savoy leaf (dgs) and blue flower (blu) were located in a previously constructed molecular linkage map. These results indicate that classical marker genes and molecular markers can be integrated to form a more complete and informative genetic linkage map. Most of the RAPD markers were not polymorphic in the two mapping populations used, and molecular markers from those mapping populations were not polymorphic in the F2 populations used to develop the RAPD markers. Alternative genetic hypotheses for the pod shape mutation in `Hialeah' are discussed, and the experimental difficulties of pod shape classification are described.

Free access

Abstract

Two gynoecious pickling cucumber inbred lines, GY 14-2 and GY 2, and 4 hybrids derived from crosses of these gynoecious lines by a monoecious determinate (M 20-2), and a monoecious indeterminate line (M 11) were grown at densities of 1, 2, and 4 plants per hill, all at populations of 84,000 plants/ha. Increasing numbers of plants/hill reduced the percentage of pistillate nodes/plant in all hybrids, the number of flowering nodes in both gynoecious inbred lines and their hybrids, and the percentage of gynoecious plants in both gynoecious inbred lines, and in their hybrids with the determinate M 20-2 line.

Open Access

The magnitude of genetic differences among and the heterogeneity within cultivated and wild American ginseng populations is unknown. Variation among individual plants from 16 geographically separated, cultivated populations and 21 geographically separated, wild populations were evaluated using RAPD markers. Cultivated populations from the midwestern U.S., the southern U.S., and Canada were examined. Wild populations from the midwestern U.S., the southern U.S., and the eastern U.S. were examined. Polymorphic bands were observed for 15 RAPD primers, which resulted in 100 scored bands. Variation was found within and among populations, indicating that the selected populations are heterogeneous with respect to RAPD markers. The genetic relationships among individual genotypes were estimated using the ratio of discordant bands to total bands scored. Multidimensional scaling of the relationship matrix showed independent clusters corresponding to the geographical and cultural origins of the populations. The integrity of the clusters were confirmed using pooled chi-squares for fragment homogeneity. Average gene diversity (Hs) was calculated for each population sample, and a one-way analysis of variance showed significant differences among populations. Overall, the results demonstrate the usefulness of the RAPD procedure for evaluating genetic relationships and comparing levels of genetic diversity among populations of American ginseng genotypes.

Free access

Lima beans are an important vegetable crop to the processing industry in Delaware, but yields in Delaware are below other areas due to heat. The objective was to correlate RAPD markers from heat-tolerant and intolerant cultivars with phenotypic data. Twenty-five primers were used, 10 of which generated 25 polymorphic bands among 11 cultivars. MDS analysis of genetic distance among the cultivars shows segregation into two major clusters, with Kingston as a distant outlier. Kingston's position can be correlated to published data reporting its consistently good yields even when temperatures are high. The results of this study indicate RAPD markers may be used to screen for cultivars that have high yield potentials despite high temperatures. Further studies to screen F, and inbreeds will determine the usefulness of these markers in breeding programs.

Free access

Sugars, including glucose, fructose, and sucrose, contribute significantly to the flavor and consumer acceptance of snap beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Sugar accumulation and changes in sugar profiles during snap bean development contribute to overall assessments of quality for breeding lines and cultivars. Developing fruit from a diverse group of four snap bean cultivars containing Andean germplasm and one Mesoamerican dry bean cultivar were sampled at 5-day intervals from 10 to 30 days after flowering over 2 years. Glucose, fructose, and sucrose in pod and seed tissue was quantified using high-performance liquid chromatography. Percent seed mass relative to pod mass increased with days after flowering, but the rate of increase was heterogeneous among cultivars. Significant differences in sugar accumulation patterns of mono- and disaccharides were observed with time of development and between pods and seeds. Glucose and fructose decreased rapidly in pods and seeds with time after flowering. In contrast, sucrose concentration increased in pod tissue but remained constant in seeds of the snap bean cultivars with time after flowering. The patterns of changes in pod and seed sugar concentrations with time after flowering were similar among all snap bean cultivars. In contrast to the snap beans, seed sucrose increased with time after flowering in the Mesoamerican dry bean cultivar Puebla 152. No year by day after flowering interactions were observed for sugar accumulation patterns or sugar concentrations. Younger snap beans had the highest sweetness index based on observed sugar concentrations, percent seed mass, and perception of relative sweetness by the human palate. Although mean sweetness varied between cultivars, the rate of decrease in sweetness with time was the same for all five cultivars. These findings indicate that variation for sweetness exists in snap beans and can be exploited by breeding to develop cultivars with a potentially more desirable, sweet flavor.

Open Access

To understand the genetics that control pod Ca concentration in snap beans, two snap bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) populations consisting of 60 genotypes, plus 4 commercial cultivars used as checks, were evaluated during Summers 1995 and 1996 at Hancock, Wis. These populations were CA2 (`Evergreen' × `Top Crop') and CA3 (`Evergreen' × `Slimgreen'). The experimental design was an 8×8 double lattice repeated each year. No Ca was added to the plants grown in a sandy loam soil with 1% organic matter and an average of 540 ppm Ca. To ensure proper comparison for pod Ca concentration among cultivars, only commercial sieve size no. 4 pods (a premium grade, 8.3 to 9.5 mm in diameter) were sampled and used for Ca extractions. After Ca was extracted, readings for Ca concentration were done via atomic absorption spectrophotometry. In both populations, genotypes and years differed for pod Ca concentration (P = 0.001). Several snap bean genotypes showed pod Ca concentrations higher than the best of the checks. Overall mean pod Ca concentration ranged from a low of 3.82 to a high of 6.80 mg·g-1 dry weight. No differences were detected between the populations. Significant year×genotype interaction was observed in CA2 (P = 0.1), but was not present in CA3. Population variances proved to be homogeneous. Heritability for pod Ca concentration ranged from 0.48 (CA2) to 0.50 (CA3). Evidently enhancement of pod Ca concentration in beans can successfully be accomplished through plant breeding.

Free access