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J.M. Smagula and S. Dunham

Lowbush blueberries (Vaccinium angustifolium Ait.) in three commercial fields were treated with 67.2 kg P/ha from triple super phosphate(TSP), monoammonium phosphate (MAP), or diammonium phosphate (DAP), and compared to a control in a randomized complete block design with 12 blocks. Correction of P deficiency by fertilizers with different ratios of P to N was assessed by leaf and stem nutrient concentrations and contents (concentration × weight). Samples of stems collected in July from three 0.03 m2 quadrates per treatment plot indicated MAP and DAP had no effect on dry weight of stem tissue, but increased average dry weight of leaf tissue. Leaf nutrient concentrations and contents showed similar results; P and N were raised to higher levels by MAP and DAP than by TSP. TSP had no effect on leaf N concentration or content but raised leaf P concentration but not content, compared to controls.

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J.M. Smagula, W. Litten, and S. Dunham

In the acid podzol soils of Maine where most lowbush blueberries are grown, low availability of boron tends to keep foliar B concentration below the 24 ppm standard. To compare efficacy of soil and foliar boron application methods, 1.5 × 7.6-m treatment plots in a commer-cial lowbush blueberry field received soil-applied borate at 0, 1.1, 2.2, or 3.3 kg·ha-1 B with or without additional DAP (89 kg·ha-1 P) and ZnSO4 (3.3 kg·ha-1 Zn) or foliar-applied Solubor at 0, 0.24, 0.49, or 0.74 kg·ha-1 B with or without the additional DAP and Zn. These 16 treatments were replicated eight times in a randomized complete-block design. Leaf B concentrations were raised by all soil-applied borate treatments and by the 0.49 and 0.74 kg·ha-1 B foliar Solubor treatments, compared to the controls. When borate at 2.2 or 3.3 kg·ha-1 B was combined with DAP plus Zn a lower leaf B concentration was observed compared to B alone, possibly due to a dilution effect caused by an increase in DAP-induced growth. Leaf P deficiency (<0.125% P) was corrected when DAP and Zn were included in the fertilizer treatment. The greatest potential yield (flower buds/stem and flower bud density) was measured in treatment plots receiving a combination of DAP plus Zn and either borate at 2.2 kg·ha-1 B or Solubor at 0.74 kg·ha-1 B. With no additional treatments applied in 1999, leaf B concentrations were slightly higher in soil-treated and foliar-treated plots than in controls suggesting a small carryover from 1997-applied boron. Carryover may vary with rainfall.

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J.M. Smagula, W. Litten, and S. Dunham

Lowbush blueberries (Vaccinium angustifolium Ait.) in two commercial fields were treated with a preemergent soil application of ZnSO4 at 0.34 g Zn/m2 or a prune-year or crop-year foliar application of Zintrac (1.76 g Zn/L) in a RCB design with five treatments and nine blocks, using 1.5 x 15-m treatment plots. Prune-year foliar Zintrac treatments were applied 20 June and 30 June at 53.8 mL·m-2 or 20 June at 107.6 mL·m-2. A crop-year application of Zintrac at 53.8 mL·m-2 was made on 26 June at only one location. Composite leaf tissue samples taken 14 July of the prune year indicated that two applications of Zintrac at 53.8 mL·m-2 raised Zn concentrations at both locations more than a single application at twice the rate. Soil application of ZnSO4 did not raise leaf Zn concentrations compared to the control at either location. Crop-year leaf samples taken 6 July at the site that received the crop-year foliar treatment indicated no carryover effect of prune-year Zn treatments on leaf Zn concentration, but crop-year foliar application of Zn from Zintrac did raise leaf Zn concentrations compared to the controls. The characteristics of stems sampled in the fall of the prune year at each location (stem density, stem length, flower bud formation) were not meaningfully affected by any of the prune-year treatments. Blueberry yield was not affected by any of the treatments at either location. These data suggest that control plot leaf Zn concentrations of about 15 ppm in both fields were adequate. Raising the leaf Zn concentrations to about 80 ppm with two applications of Zintrac at 53.8 mL·m -2 had no effect on growth or yield.

Open access

John M. Smagula and William J. Bramlage

Abstract

A new method for analyzing acetaldehyde concentration in apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) tissues was used to measure its accumulation in senescing fruits. Initially low levels (1 µg/g fresh weight) increased as the fruits ripened, but only at advanced senescence did they reach relatively high levels (14 µg/g fresh weight). Acetaldehyde did not accumulate in advance of tissue disorganization. Watercored ‘Delicious’ apple tissue accumulated significantly more acetaldehyde than tissue of non-watercored fruits during storage, but watercore breakdown did not result. There was no consistent difference in acetaldehyde levels of ethephon-treated and non-treated ‘McIntosh’ apples after long-term storage, although the ethephon-treated fruits developed more senescent breakdown. However, the acetaldehyde level in fruits after breakdown occurred was about 20% higher than that in corresponding sound fruit. Acetaldehyde accumulation appeared to be a consequence of tissue disorganization rather than a cause of senescent breakdown in the fruits.

Open access

John M. Smagula and William J. Bramlage

Abstract

Acetaldehyde is a metabolite frequently attributed a key role in physiological deterioration of fruits and other plant materials. In fruits, it accumulates during ripening and during development of many physiological disorders. Its role in deterioration, however, is not clear. Its toxicity is easily demonstrated, hence it is tempting to ascribe injury and degeneration to acetaldehyde accumulation. Nevertheless, a body of evidence suggests that its accumulation is a result, rather than cause, of tissue disorganization. Resolution of this question awaits development of an analytical method that will overcome the deficiencies inherent in methods used in the past.

Open access

W. J. Bramlage, R. M. Devlin, and J. M. Smagula

Abstract

Application of (2-chloroethyl) phosphonic acid (ethephon) at a rate of 0.92 kg/ha stimulated preharvest anthocyanin accumulation in ‘Early Black’ cranberries. A 10-fold increase in ethylene production followed application; however, within 10 days there was little difference in ethylene production between control and treated fruit. The increase in pigment that occurred during this time persisted well beyond this period. Ethephon did not affect the rate of CO2 production from the fruit. Whether or not anthocyanin stimulation occurred via accelerated ripening was not resolved.

Free access

J.F. Hancock, P.W. Callow, S.L. Krebs, D.C. Ramsdell, J.R. Ballington, M.J. Lareau, J.J. Luby, G.P. Pavlis, M.P. Pritts, J.M. Smagula, and N. Vorsa

Flower bud and leaf samples collected from a wide range of native North American Vaccinium populations were tested for the presence of blueberry shoestring virus (BBSSV) using the enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay. The highest disease incidence was found in Michigan (14%), although a few positive samples also were found in Virginia, New Jersey, Maine, Ontario, and Quebec. Of seven species tested, only V. corymbosum L. and V. angustifolium Ait. were infected with BBSSV.