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  • Author or Editor: J. M. Lyons x
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Abstract

Recurrent selection was used to breed Phaseolus species for resistance to white mold disease, caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Twenty diverse genotypes selected for resistance to white mold formed the cycle 0 population. These lines were intercrossed in a partial diallel, and the F2 progeny were tested for resistance to white mold using a detached blossom/ascospore technique. Twenty single-plant selections were made, and the F3 progeny of these selections formed the cycle 1 population. A 2nd cycle of intercrossing, evaluation, and selection was completed, and genetic gain was determined by evaluating disease resistance of the selfed progeny derived from the cycle 0, 1, and 2 populations. There was a highly significant linear improvement in mean disease response from cycle 0 to cycle 2. When a subjective rating was used to assess disease response, the average gain/cycle was 0.52 rating units, and the percentage gain from cycle 0 to cycle 2 was 31%. When measurement of lesion length (centimeters) on the main stem was used to assess disease response, the average gain/cycle was 1.96 cm, and the percentage gain from cycle 0 to cycle 2 was 50%. The results of this study indicate that recurrent selection may be a useful technique for the development of resistance to white mold in Phaseolus species.

Open Access

Abstract

Preharvest field temperatures can influence composition and quality of vegetables at harvest as well as their postharvest responses. Temperatures which injure or weaken the tissues prior to harvest will reduce storage life and increase susceptibility to decay.

Freezing temperatures in the field can greatly reduce storage life. In addition, many vegetables suffer injury when exposed for certain periods of time to temperatures above freezing but below about 10°C. This injury, termed chilling injury, is most often associated with vegetables of tropical and subtropical origin; however, some temperate-zone vegetables can be injured by low, but non-freezing, temperatures.

High field temperatures can result in physiological disorders and increased deterioration. High field temperatures can induce injury visible at harvest, such as sunburn or sunscald; however, serious problems can also occur during storage and handling following injury which was not visible at harvest.

Open Access

Little knowledge exists regarding root distribution of creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera) and annual bluegrass (Poa annua) in root zones of golf course putting greens. To compare root distribution between these species, three experimental cultivars of greens-type annual bluegrass and two commercial cultivars of creeping bentgrass (‘Penncross’ and ‘Penn A-4’) were established on an experimental golf green and managed under two nitrogen (N) fertility levels (195 and 65 kg N/ha/year) over a 2-year period. Creeping bentgrass had two and three times the total root mass compared with annual bluegrass during the first and second years of the experiment, respectively. At soil depths of 3–12 cm and below 12 cm, creeping bentgrass had three to four times the root mass compared with annual bluegrass at various times during the experiment. During the first year of the experiment, both species exhibited greater than 50% decrease in total root mass from June to August. During the second year, creeping bentgrass total root mass decreased 10% to 15% and annual bluegrass total root mass decreased 25% to 30% over the same period. Of the two bentgrasses, ‘Penn A-4’ creeping bentgrass exhibited greater total root mass only in the second year; however, ‘Penn A-4’ exhibited greater root mass than ‘Penncross’ below 12 cm in both years. Creeping bentgrass cultivars showed greater root mass below 12 cm at 65 kg N/ha/year compared with 195 kg N/ha/year on some sampling dates in both years. Annual bluegrass cultivars showed no change in any root mass parameters in response to N rates (data not shown), but specific root length (SRL) of annual bluegrass increased under the 65 kg N/ha/year rate compared with the 195 kg N/ha/year rate, whereas SRL of creeping bentgrass was similar at both N rates. Tiller densities of both species increased under the 195 kg N/ha/year rate. ‘Penn A-4’ exhibited higher tiller densities than ‘Penncross’ throughout the experiment and at times was equivalent to the tiller densities of the annual bluegrass cultivars. These results suggest that although creeping bentgrass increases root mass deeper in a putting green root zone mix at lower N rates (65 kg N/ha/year), annual bluegrass exhibits plasticity in specific root length in response to different N rates.

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