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  • Author or Editor: J. David Williams x
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Abstract

Two formulations, 5G and 75WP, of methazole (2-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-4-methyl-1,2,4-oxadiazolidine-3,5 dione) applied at 1.7, 3.4 and 6.8 kg ai/ha effectively controlled Digitaria sanguinalis L. (large crabgrass) and Portulaca oleracea L. (common purslane) in container-grown Cotoneaster apiculata Rehd. & Wils., Euonymus kiautschovicus Loes. cv. Manhattan and Juniperus chinensis L. cv. San Jose. All rates of the 75WP formulation reduced the shoot and root dry wt of Cotoneaster and Euonymus.

Open Access

Under the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA), private applicators who purchase and use restricted use pesticides (RUP's) are required to obtain certification. The Cooperative Extension Service has been assigned the responsibility of informing and educating those applicators about the safe and precise use of pesticides. In Illinois, area Agriculture advisors are responsible for the training. They are supported by State staff. Support is provided to area advisors through development of several teaching medias. A Private Applicator Training manual is the main educational media. That is supported by a slide set and script, videos, demonstration kits, handouts, and overheads. Trainers are encouraged to have students use workbooks, which were developed to follow the slide set, during training sessions. Additional support is provided through a newletter, equipment and video loans, advertising, meeting site rental, and yearly program updates. Train-the-Trainer classes are provided as needed. Trainers have been surveyed as to the quality of exiting and the need for new educational materials. Examples of publications and teaching materials will be on display.

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Experiments in two consecutive years indicated that barnyardgrass (Echirzochloa crusgalli L.), large crabgrass (Digitaria sanguinalis L.), and giant foxtail (Setaria faberi Herrm.) reduced growth of container-grown `San Jose' juniper (Juniperus chinensis L. `San Jose') 83 days after transplanting grass seedlings into the containers. Grass densities of one to six weeds per container reduced `San Jose' juniper growth. By 83 days of grass interference, juniper shoot dry weight was reduced as much as 43% by six weeds per container.

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The State Of Illinois passed legislation banning landscape wastes deposition in land fills. Approximately 18% of all solid wastes going into Illinois landfills were landscape wastes including grass clippings, branch prunings, leaves and wood. A cooperative program between the Horticulture Department, the Cooperative Extension Service and the Illinois Department of Energy and Natural Resources was initiated to train county extension advisers, municipalities, and the consuming public on methods for landscape waste reduction and recycling.

Workshops, video tapes, Master Composters, mobile displays, fact sheets and a model municipal composting facility were developed. Publications and other educational materials will be displayed.

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Newspaper was pelletized and tested as a peat moss substitute in growing media used for producing bedding plants and woody ornamentals in containers. Varying amounts of urea was added to the newspaper prior to pelletization to improve the C:N ratio of the pellets Newsprint had a C:N ratio of 800:1. One quart of a 28% nitrogen solution per ton of paper consistently changed the C:N ratio to 400: 1 Additional quantities of the 28% N solution did not lower the C:N ration due to volatilization. The addition granular urea at 5.0 lbs. and 10.0 lbs. of urea per 300 lbs of newsprint altered the C:N ratio to 50:1 and 18:1 respectively. Media containing pelletized paper expanded about 40% in volume when water was added Following the first leaching electrical conductivity of the leachate was slightly elevated when compared to the check. In nine subsequent leachings the electrical conductivity was not significantly different than the check. The pH of the leachate averaged 7.2

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Abstract

Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv. Contender (green bean) treated with sea salt aerosols, similar to ambient seashore conditions displayed foliar injury from exposures of 8, 168, and 480 hr at sedimentation rates of 27, 5.7 and 1.5 μg/m2/sec, respectively. Sodium and chloride uptake was linear with time. Toxicity symptoms corresponded with a critical leaf tissue level of 2.6% Cl regardless of exposure time or sedimentation rate.

Open Access

The objective of this study was to evaluate the ability of various cultivars of Hosta ovary explants to generate adventitious shoots and obtain variegated plants in vitro. Immature inflorescences along with 8 to 10 cm of scape were harvested from Hosta cultivars. The ovaries were prepared for culture by cutting immature florets before anthesis. The florets were first cut just above the top of the immature ovary to remove the sigma, style, corolla, and anther. Then the calyx and filament bases were also removed. Ovaries were transversely cut into halves and transferred to baby jars containing Hosta initiation medium supplemented with naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) at 0.5 mg/L and 6-benzylamino purine (BA). The explants produced adventitious shoots from ovary base via organogenesis. The number of shoots regenerated from shoot tips and callus increased linearly with repeatedf subculturing on MS medium. This method would provide an effective alternative to conventional propagation crown division of Hosta, an expensive and slow process. The long-term goal of this project is to improve Hosta.

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Abstract

Picea pungens Englm. trees were treated with a single foliar spray of solutions containing 0, 100, 250, 500, and 1000 mM BA at 4 different times as follows during the growing season: 1) dormant trees, 2) at bud break, 3) during stem elongation, 4) summer hardwood, and 5) summer hardwood combined with a pruning. Treatments of 1000 mM at the time of bud break and to pruned summer hardwood trees resulted in an increase in bud number but not a corresponding increase in branch number the following year.

Open Access

Abstract

Sprays of 4% Off-Shoot-O (45% methyl esters of fatty acids, 4% C6, 56% C8, 38% C10, 2% C12) to container-grown Cotoneaster divaricata Rehd. & Wils., Pyracantha coccinea Roem. cv. Lalandi and Rhododendron carolinianum Rehd. at the beginning of each of 2 growing seasons increased shoots over unpruned plants but reduced fruit clusters of pyracantha. Sprays maintained hedge height of cotoneaster but not Forsythia X intermedia Zobel or privet (Ligustrum ovalifolium Hassk).

Open Access

Shoot tip explants of Algerian Ivy Heder a canariensis were cultured on MS basal medium supplemented with a combination of salt strength and NAA and IBA. More roots per explant developed on full salt strength medium combined with NAA. The most roots per explant were obtained with a combination of IBA and 1/4 MS salt. There was an inverse relationship between an increase in IBA or NAA concentration and root length and number. Shoots proliferated better on full MS salt combined with NAA and IBA. The highest level of NAA (40 uM) and 0.1 uM TDZ produced the most shoots and roots, the longest roots, the highest rooting percentage, the largest plants with the most leaves and the best callus quality per explant. The leaves from in vitro were cultured on MS medium with varying levels of Thidiazuron (TDZ) and NAA in the presence of light produced the highest number of roots.

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