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- Author or Editor: J. B. Jones x
Two hundred eight-four Lycopersicon spp. genotypes reported to have some resistance to bacterial pathogens of tomato (L. esculentum Mill.) were inoculated in the field with Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria (XCV), the incitant of bacterial spot, and rated for disease severity in summer 1982 and/or summer 1983. One line tested in 1983, Hawaii 7998, had no definite XCV lesions and later was determined to be resistant to XCV in the laboratory. Genotypes with the highest levels of resistance during 2 years of testing were: Ohio 4013-3, Ohio 4014-4, Heinz 1568-F3, [(Subarctic Delite × MH1) × H603] F5, L556, ‘Campbell-28’, PI 127813, Heinz 603-F11, PI 224573, ‘Monense’, ‘Heinz 2990’, and PI 324708. Genotypes with highest levels of resistance in one year of testing were PI 379032 and ‘Burgess Crack Proof. In 1982, PI 270248- ‘Sugar’ had a high level of resistance to XCV on fruit, but foliage was susceptible.
Hawaii 7998 (foliage resistant to bacterial spot) was crossed with ‘Walter’ (susceptible) and F1, backcross, and F2 generations were derived. These genotypes were grown in the field at Bradenton, Fla. in the summers of 1984 and 1985 and inoculated with Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria, the incitant of bacterial spot. Disease severity for respective genotypes was similar both years, although somewhat greater in 1985. Disease severity in the F1 was intermediate to the parents, but slightly skewed toward resistance both years. The percentage of F2 plants with resistance comparable to Hawaii 7988 was 9.6% in 1984 and 4.6% in 1985. There was no evidence of cytoplasmic inheritance from three sets of reciprocal crosses tested in 1985. The data fit an additive-dominance genetic model, but dominance variance was negative both years, which indicates a small or negligible dominance effect. The negative dominance variance resulted in biased estimates of additive variance, narrow-sense heritability, and the number of effective factors. Nevertheless, narrow-sense heritability was moderate to high. When incorporating this resistance into new genetic backgrounds, we suggest that a modified backcrossing scheme with rigorous disease screening be used to obtain plants from homozygous resistant BCF3 lines before crossing.
Mouse ear is an abnormal condition in pecans [Carya illinoensis (Wang.) K. Koch] in which the leaflets of the compound leaf fail to elongate in a normal manner and develop into a “mouse ear” shape. Mouse-ear trees had more Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn and Mo and less Mg in leaf and stem tissues than normal trees. In both normal and mouse ear pecan, 92–96% of total Ca in leaves and stems was nonextractable in 2% acetic acid solution, being in the form of Ca-oxalate crystals. Crystals of cross-sectional area as large as 2000 μm2 and 6000 μm2 were found in leaves and stems, respectively. Although only 600 to 1200 ppm of Ca was available for physiological functions in leaf tissue other than for precipitation of oxalic acid. There was no significant evidence to show that mouse ear is a Ca-deficiency problem.
A `spray-inoculation seedling screening procedure was developed for detecting resistance to Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria (Doidge) Dye, causal agent of bacterial spot of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.). Two-week-old transplants were preconditioned under 95% humidity for 16 hours before spray inoculation and then rated for bacterial spot 2 weeks later. Resistant plants could also be distinguished from susceptible genotypes using a modified bacterial speck [Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Okabe) Young, Dye, and Wilkie] screening procedure (cotyledon-dip technique). When results of both screening methods were compared to field ratings from three previous seasons, significant correlations were more frequently observed for the spray-inoculation method. In Summer 1991, individual plants were evaluated by the spray-inoculation technique and then were placed in the field to determine susceptibility under field conditions. Correlations (r = 0.28 to 0.34) between spray-inoculation seedling screening ratings and field ratings, although low, were significant (P ≤ 0.0001). More than 90% of susceptible plants could be eliminated, saving labor, space, and time.
Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) accession PI 270248 (‘Sugar’) had high levels of resistance to bacterial spot [incited by Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria (Doidge) Dye] on fruit, but foliage was susceptible. Hawaii 7998 (H7998) was highly resistant to foliar infection, but was intermediate in resistance to fruit infection. Fruit spot on hybrids between ‘Sugar’ and H7998 was usually intermediate to the parents. Occasionally, disease incidence of hybrids was not statistically different from one or both parents, but tended to resemble ‘Sugar’ more closely than H7998. There were no significant differences between reciprocal hybrids, indicating a lack of cytoplasmic inheritance. Under low disease incidence, hybrids between ‘Sugar’ and ‘Walter’ (susceptible to bacterial spot on fruit and foliage) had fruit spot incidence similar to ‘Sugar’ and significantly less than ‘Walter’. Thus, there was a high level of dominance for resistance to bacterial spot on fruit.
Soils, and leaf and fruit tissues were collected from 200 peach orchard sites during the 1970 growing season. Results obtained were not markedly different from those obtained in an earlier survey in 1962. Most of the soils were quite acid and the peach leaf N levels were below optimum. Most growers appeared to be overfertilizing with P but applying adequate K. Peach fruit were quite high in K, accounting for a sizeable removal of K from the soil.
Hawaii 7981 tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.), resistant to race T3 of the bacterial spot pathogen [Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria (Doidge) Dye], was crossed to the susceptible tomato inbred, Fla. 7060, and subsequently F2 and backcross seed were obtained. These generations were planted in the field, inoculated with the race T3 pathogen and evaluated for disease severity over two summer seasons. Data were tested for goodness-of-fit to a model based on control by the incompletely dominant gene Xv3 that confers hypersensitivity. The F1 was intermediate in disease severity to the parents for both seasons. When data were combined over both seasons, the backcrosses fit the expected 1:1 ratios although each deviated from the expected ratio in one of the 2 years tested. The F2 did not fit the expected 1:2:1 ratio in either year or when data from the two years were combined due to a deficiency of resistant plants. Thirty-three F2 plants representing an array of disease severities and hypersensitivity reactions were selected in the second season and their F3 progeny were inoculated and evaluated for disease severity. Hawaii 7981 was significantly more resistant than the 12 most resistant F3 selections even though all expressed hypersensitivity. A hypersensitive F3 with intermediate field resistance was crossed to Hawaii 7981 and subsequently, F2 and backcross generations were obtained. These generations were field inoculated with the race T3 pathogen and evaluated for disease severity. Hawaii 7981 was significantly more resistant than the F3 parent as in the previous year. The data did not fit an additive-dominance model and epistatic interactions were significant. Thus, it appears that field resistance to race T3 of bacterial spot found in Hawaii 7981 is conferred quantitatively by Xv3 and other resistance genes. Breeding implications are discussed.
Weekly foliar fertilizer applications of 10 ppm NO3-N [as Ca(NO3)2] or NH4-N [as (NH4)2SO4] significantly reduced dry matter, N accumulation, and yield of ‘Blue Lake 274’ snap bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) grown in solution culture. The reduction in dry matter and N accumulation were greatest with the NH4-N vs. the NO3-N foliar treatment. Data obtained in this study indicates that the cultural practice of applying NH4 or NO3 fertilizer through an overhead irrigation system may reduce snap bean yield.
Bacteriophages specific to Xanthomonas campestris pv. pelargonii (Xcp), the causal agent of bacterial blight of geranium, Pelargonium ×hortorum L.H. Bailey, were isolated from soil and sludge samples from Florida, California, Minnesota, and Utah. Sixteen phages were evaluated for their potential to lyse 21 Xcp strains collected from around the world. The Xcp strains varied in their susceptibility to the phage isolates with 4 to 14 phages producing a lytic or highly virulent reaction. A mixture of five h-mutants was developed from phages that exhibited the broadest host-ranges and tested against the same Xcp strains. The h-mutant phage mixture lysed all 21 Xcp strains. Three experiments were designed to determine the efficacy of using a mixture of four h-mutant phages to control the spread of the bacterial blight pathogen on potted and seedling geraniums under greenhouse conditions. Plants surrounding diseased inoculated plants were treated with a phage mixture at 5 × 108 pfu/mL daily, biweekly, or triweekly, or treated with Phyton-27®, at 2.0 mL·L-1 every 10 or 14 days. In potted geraniums, daily foliar sprays of the phage mixture had reduced disease incidence and severity by 50% and 75%, respectively, relative to control plants after 6 weeks. In two plug experiments, the phage mixture applied daily also had reduced disease incidence and severity by 69% and 86%, and 85% and 92%, respectively, when compared with controls after 5 weeks. In all three experiments, disease incidence and severity were less for plants treated daily with phages than for those treated less frequently with phages or with Phyton-27®. Chemical name used: copper sulfate pentahydrate (Phyton-27®).
A mixture of host-range mutant (h-mutant) bacteriophages specific for tomato race 1 (T1) and race 3 (T3) of the bacterial spot pathogen, Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria (Doidge) Dye was evaluated for biological control of bacterial spot on `Sunbeam' tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) transplants and field-grown plants for two seasons (Fall 1997 and Fall 1998). Foliar applications of bacteriophages were compared with similar applications of water (control) and of copper/mancozeb bactericides, the commonly used chemical control strategy for tomato seedling and field production. In 1997, the incidence of bacterial spot on greenhouse-grown seedlings was reduced from 40.5% (control) to 5.5% or 0.9% for bactericide- or bacteriophage-treated plants, respectively. In 1998, the incidence of bacterial spot was 17.4% on control plants vs. 5.5% and 2.7% for bactericide- and bacteriophage-treated plants, respectively, although these differences were not statistically significant at P ≤ 0.05. Applications of bacteriophages to field-grown tomatoes decreased disease severity as measured by the area under the disease progress curve (AUDPC) by 17.5% (1997) and 16.8% (1998) compared with untreated control plants. Preharvest plant vigor ratings, taken twice during each field season, were higher in the bacteriophage-treated plants than in either bactericide-treated plants or nontreated controls except for the early vigor rating in 1998. Use of bacteriophages increased total weight of extra-large fruit 14.9% (1997) and 24.2% (1998) relative to that of nontreated control plants, and 37.8% (1997) and 23.9% (1998) relative to that of plants treated with the chemical bactericides. Chemical names used: manganese, zinc, carboxyethylene bis dithiocarbamate (mancozeb).