Blueberry (Vaccinium L. section Cyanococcus Gray), a rich source of polyphenolics with important implications for human health and chronic diseases, has become a major fruit commodity in the United States. This study was designed to assess the impact of introgression through interspecific hybridization on anthocyanin (ANC) profiles among blueberry species. Southern highbush blueberry (V. corymbosum L.) and rabbiteye blueberry (V. virgatum Ait.) commercial cultivars, North Carolina blueberry breeding selections, and blueberry breeding populations with varying degrees of introgression from multiple species were used to address this question. The breeding selections and populations were created and selected for traits not directly related to their ANC profiles and are therefore likely representative of the current selection objectives of most public and private breeding programs. Ripe fruit at a uniform stage of maturity were evaluated for ANC concentration and profile in 2 consecutive years (2010 and 2011) from all plants. Total ANC ranged from 189 to 464, 74 to 421, and 227 to 537 mg/100 g (frozen fruit) in the commercial cultivars, breeding selections, and breeding populations, respectively. Significant increases in total ANC were observed among material that represents an expanded gene pool in southern highbush blueberry (introgression from V. angustifolium Ait., V. elliottii Chap., V. myrsinites Lam., V. pallidum Ait., V. tenellum Ait., V. fuscatum Ait., V. constablaei Gray, and V. arboreum Mar.). Differences in acylation and glycosylation patterns were also observed in the same material, which may condition relative stability, absorption, and bioavailability of ANC. Results suggest that the expansion of the gene base through interspecific hybridization can have both a positive and negative impact on ANC accumulation and that breeders need to be aware of these issues early in the breeding program.
Gad G. Yousef, Mary A. Lila, Ivette Guzman, James R. Ballington and Allan F. Brown
Robert F. Heyduck, Steven J. Guldan and Ivette Guzmán
In a two-part study, we examined the effect of sowing date and harvest schedule on the yield of spinach (Spinacia oleracea) grown during the winter in 16 × 32-ft-high tunnels in northern New Mexico. Each part of the study was conducted for two growing seasons and took place between 2012 and 2015. In Study A (2012–13 and 2013–14), spinach was sown four times at roughly 2-week intervals (mid-October, early November, mid-November, and early December) and plant density (plants per square foot), plant height (centimeters), and yield (grams per square foot) were measured for three harvests in mid-January, mid-February, and mid-March. The earliest sowing date had the least-dense stands, and plant density increased with each subsequent sowing. The two earliest sowing dates had significantly higher season-long yield than the later two sowings. In Study B (2013–14 and 2014–15), all plots were sown in mid-October, but harvest schedule treatments were staggered such that harvests began at 9, 11, 13, or 15 weeks after sowing and continued at irregular intervals. Treatment 2, with harvests beginning after 11 weeks, had the greatest season-long yield, slightly greater than when harvests began at 9 weeks, and significantly more than when harvest began 13 weeks or later. More importantly, a staggered harvest schedule can provide spinach weekly for direct marketing opportunities.
Allan F. Brown, Gad G. Yousef, Ivette Guzman, Kranthi K. Chebrolu, Dennis J. Werner, Mike Parker, Ksenija Gasic and Penelope Perkins-Veazie
The objective of this study was to examine the relative impact of genetics and environment on phenolic and carotenoid profiles in peach (Prunus persica) germplasm. Fully mature, (“ready-to-eat” stage) firm fruit of peach cultivars China Pearl, Contender, and Carolina Gold were collected from established trees at two North Carolina locations in 2009 and 2010. Advanced breeding selections NC Yellow and NC 97-48 were collected from a single location in both years. Using tandem extractions and chromatography analyses, 10 carotenoids and 24 phenolic compounds were quantified separately in the peel and flesh. Statistically significant differences were noted among peach cultivars and advanced selections for β-carotene, cyanidin-3-glucoside, cyanidin-3-rutinoside, cholorogenic acid, quercetin-3-glucoside, and individual procyanidins. Peel anthocyanin (ANC) concentration ranged from 183 mg/100 g in ‘Contender’ to non-detectable levels in NC97-48 and NC Yellow. ‘China Pearl’ and ‘Carolina Gold’ produced ANC levels approximately half of ‘Contender’. Chlorogenic acid concentration also fit a discrete pattern of accumulation but was not related to the accumulation of ANC. ‘China Pearl’, NC 97-48, and NC Yellow contained the highest levels of chlorogenic acid (105 to 136 mg/100 g), ‘Carolina Gold’ contained the lowest (52 mg/100 g), and ‘Contender’ represented an intermediate phenotype (70 mg/100 g). Statistically significant genetic variation was found for almost all compounds identified, whereas location and year effects tended to be compound-specific. For chlorogenic acid, 28% of the phenotypic variance was explained by location (year = nonsignificant), whereas 40% of the phenotypic variation of ANC was explained by differences in years (location = nonsignificant). Analyzing fruit from the same environment over 2 years or from two locations in the same year would not have adequately accounted for the variation associated with environment. The detailed phytochemical profile of peach reported here demonstrates the importance of multiyear, multilocation analysis in revealing accurate measures of phytochemical genetic variation and provides a comprehensive baseline analysis of phytochemicals in commonly grown peach cultivars that can be used to evaluate novel germplasm.