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Open access

Irena Rylski

Abstract

Air and soil temp have a great influence on the development and flowering of the pepper plant. The time interval between emergence and flowering increases as temp drop. Plants which grew under low temp in any particular growth stage developed an equal or greater number of leaves before the first flower than did plants growing under high temp, regardless of day length.

A soil temp of 10°C retarded plant development, whereas 17°C allowed normal development. The rate of growth increased as soil temp rose. The total plant wt after 100 days of growth under various soil temp increased with rising temp. The top continued to develop with rising temp, but root development was retarded at a soil temp of 30°C or above.

Open access

Irena Rylski

Abstract

The correlation of fruit size with seed no. was high (r = 0.96 to 0.99) in fruit growing at high or low night temperatures.

The proportionate wt of fruit per seed decreased with increasing seed no., and was higher in fruit growing under low temp than under high temp. The night temp prevailing before anthesis was not significant for parthenocarpic fruit development, but low temp after anthesis did enable such fruit to develop. High (18-20°C) temp during flower development is a prerequisite for the formation of good-shaped, elongated fruit. The highest length/diam ratio in both fertilized and non-fertilized fruit was obtained with high night temp up to anthesis and low (8-10°C) thereafter.

Open access

Irena Rylski

Abstract

Fruit set and fruit development of seeded, naturally seedless, and growth-regulator-induced seedless tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cv. Azes), were examined under 17°, 22° and 27°C day temperatures, all with natural daylight and constant 10° night temperature. The best seeded fruit set and development were at 22° day temperature. A high positive correlation (r = 0.9) was found between number of seeds per fruit and fruit size with a day temperature of 27°; there was a lower but still positive correlation with lower temperature. Seedless fruit developed, and attained marketable weight (above 40 g), only when the inflorescences had been sprayed with 20% β naphthoxyacetic acid (B-NOA). Day temperature also affected fruit shape. At 27° the fruit was almost globe-shaped, but at the lower temperatures the fruit became more oblate. Fruit puffiness was particularly related to lack of fertilization resulting from flower emasculation or to lower day temperature affecting set of seed-deficient fruits. “No-Seed” treatment led to green jelly production and pointed blossom-end in fruits, under all temperature regimes.

Open access

Irena Rylski and H. Kempler

Abstract

The effects of polyethylene (PE) and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastic film tunnels (perforated, whole and double layer) on fruit set and yield of winter peppers were tested alone and in combination with soil mulches of black bitumen and black PE film. Whereas double4ayer cover induced more vigorous plant development, good fruit set on lower nodes, resulting in higher early yields of large fruit, was obtained only from plants covered throughout flowering by perforated plastic film. The addition of bitumen mulch resulted in higher total and early yield, while black PE mulch reduced the early yield, Factors inducing flower abscission when double-layer plastic is in use during flowering, as well as the differences between black bitumen and black PE mulch, are discussed.

Open access

Irena Rylski and A. H. Halevy

Abstract

By various pinching, pruning and grafting experiments and by growing explant buds in nutrient culture, it was demonstrated that buds of varying nodes on the main stem of pepper plants differ in their readiness to flower. The upper ones, in proximity to the 1st branch-off, regardless of whether the 1st flower has actually appeared or is only about to do so, are close to flowering; whereas, the lower ones, situated farther from the first flower, are late to flower. The lowest buds are also the most juvenile and root easily. The state of juvenility decreases gradually towards the apex.

Open access

Irena Rylski and A. H. Halevy

Abstract

The removal of cotyledons retarded the development and flowering of California Wonder pepper. The effective action of the cotyledons in plant development lasted for about 7 days, the time required for the first pair of leaves to reach cotyledonary size. Removal after 7 days did not affect further development. Removal of the first pair of true leaves did not retard flowering.