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  • Author or Editor: Ingrid Fordham x
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Abstract

More axillary shoots developed from subcultured shoots of apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) that were placed inverted in the medium. This effect was particularly noticeable for ‘Delicious’ and strains of it, which normally proliferate poorly and begin to senesce 3 weeks after the beginning of the subculture period. Inverting the subcultured shoots reduced or eliminated the tendency to senesce early. Axillary shoots from inverted shoots rooted as easily as those from ones oriented either vertically or horizontally. Chemical names used: N–(phenylmethyl)-1H-purin-6-amine (BA), 1H-indole-3-butanoic acid (IBA), and gibberellic acid (Ga3).

Open Access

Abstract

Apple cultivar cuttings, prepared from shoots proliferated in vitro, initiated roots readily when placed for 3–7 days in the dark in a liquid medium containing only 43.8 mm sucrose and 1.5 μM indolebutyric acid (IBA). Raising the temperature during dark treatment from 25° to 30°C improved rooting for several cultivars. The addition of half-strength Murashige and Skoog (MS) salts or of phloroglucinol (PG) to the rooting medium did not improve rooting. IBA was the most effective auxin tried and indoleacetic acid (IAA) the least effective. Maintaining the cultures in the dark for more than 6 days improved rooting of only 1 cultivar and after 9 days rooting percentages sometimes decreased. More than 80% rooting was obtained with ‘McIntosh’ and ‘Mutsu’ after only 4 subcultures (4–5 months in culture), whereas some other cultivars in culture for a much longer time rooted no better or not as well. Roots that were initiated in liquid medium elongated after cuttings were inserted into preformed peat plugs. The resulting plantlets acclimated easily for transfer to greenhouse conditions.

Open Access

Abstract

The article “Simplified Method for Rooting Apple Cultivars in Vitro” by Richard H. Zimmerman and Ingrid Fordham [J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 110(1):34–38. 1985.] contained errors within Table 3. The corrected table appears below. Tables 4, 5, and 6 also are being reprinted because the previously published format was difficult to read.

Open Access

Autumn olive (Elaeagnus umbellata) is a small red berry that grows on shrubs from Maine to Alabama. This plant originated in China and was introduced to the U.S. in the late 1800s for erosion control. About 20% of the berry' fresh weight is in its single, large seed. The berries of Autumn olive are extremely rich in lycopene (30–50 mg/100 g). The berries are astringent, indicating that fruit may be high in phenolic compounds as well as carotenoids. There has been great interest in producing the plants in domesticated plantings, and in using the fruit as a natural source of lycopene.

This study was done to determine the relative contents of lycopene and phenolics among selections and varieties of autumn olive. The lycopene content of six selections and varieties was 30 to 55 mg·g–1. The lycopene content of berries did not increase after 4 days storage at 25 °C followed by 2 days at 5 °C. Autumn olives are high in soluble solids content (11% to 17%), and relatively high in acidity (1.7% to 5.5% citric acid). The astringent flavor of the berries may be due to the high total phenolic content (1700 mg·kg–1 chlorogenic acid equivalents). The berries were found to be high in flavanols and hydroxybenzoic acids (33 rutin and 31 gallic acid mg·kg–1 equivalents), while the seeds were high in hydroxycinnamic acids and extremely high in hydroxybenzoic acids (35 chlorogenic acid and 184 gallic acid mg·kg–1 equivalents).

Free access

Abstract

Shoot tips of Exbury azalea (Rhododendron sp.) were proliferated on Anderson's Rhododendron medium supplemented with 6-benzylamino purine (BA), 6-(= ϒ, = ϒ-dimethylallylamino) purine (2iP), 6-(= ϒ, = ϒ dimethylallylamino) purine riboside (2iP-riboside), 6-furfurylaminopurine (kinetin), or 6-(4-hydroxy-3-methylbut-2-enylamino) purine (zeatin). The greatest number of shoots was produced on medium containing zeatin, a lesser number on 2iP and 2iP-riboside, and the least on BA and kinetin. Shoot proliferation was affected by genotype. Few adventitious shoots formed on detached cultured leaves. Shoot tips rooted when subcultured on medium without cytokinin or when inserted in moist milled sphagnum.

Open Access

Abstract

Thidiazuron stimulated shoot proliferation on shoot tip explants of ‘Gala’ apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) when incorporated in Linsmaier-Skoog medium at concentrations of 10, 1, and 0.1 μm. Shoot numbers with thidiazuron were equivalent to, or greater than, the number produced when using 4.4 μm BA in the medium, but the shoots were shorter than with BA. At 10 and 1 μm thidiazuron, shoot leaves were narrow, had pointed laminae, and were somewhat distorted. Shoot proliferation continued when explants from the 2 highest thidiazuron concentrations were transferred to cytokinin-free medium. Shoots from cultures grown at all 3 concentrations of thidiazuron rooted after 1 to 2 subcultures on cytokinin-free medium. Chemical names used: N-(phenylmethyl)-lH-purin-6-amine (BA) and N-phenyl-N′-l,2,3-thiadiazol-5-ylurea (thidiazuron).

Open Access

Autumn olive (Elaeagnus umbellata Thunb.) has edible fruit with brilliant red or yellow pigmentation. An analysis of the pigment in fruit of five cultivars and six naturalized plants showed that the berries contain lycopene, α-cryptoxanthin, β-cryptoxanthin, β-carotene, lutein, phytoene, and phytofluene. The lycopene content per 100 g ranged from 15 to 54 mg in fresh fruit from the naturalized plants and from 17 to 48 mg in the four cultivars with red-pigmented fruit. A cultivar with yellow fruit had only 0.47 mg/100 g fresh fruit. In contrast, fresh tomato fruit, the major dietary source of lycopene, has a lycopene content per 100 g of ≈3 mg. This newly identified source of lycopene may provide an alternative to tomato as a dietary source of lycopene and related carotenoids.

Free access

Abstract

The apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) cultivars Empire, McIntosh, Delicious, Triple Red Delicious, and Vermont Spur Delicious were grown on Linsmaier and Skoog (LS) medium containing 4.4 μm BA, 0.5 μm IBA, 1.3 μm GA3, 87.6 mm sucrose, and 7 g·liter−1 Difco Bacto-agar. All cultivars produced significantly more total shoots and shoots >1 cm (usable shoots) on a 16-hr compared to a 24-hr photoperiod. Removing the apical meristem significantly increased both the total and usable shoots only for ‘Triple Red Delicious’. Placing explants horizontally on the medium significantly increased the number of total and usable shoots for all cultivars except ‘McIntosh’. Internode length was significantly reduced for ‘Delicious’, ‘Triple Red Delicious’, and ‘Vermont Spur Delicious’ and increased for ‘Empire’ on 24-hr photoperiods. Chemical names used: N-(phenylmethyl)-1H-purin-6-amine (BA); 1H-indole-3-butanoic acid (IBA); gibberellic acid (GA3).

Open Access

Autumnberry (Elaeagnus umbellata, “A”) and cornelian cherry (Cornusmas, “CC”) genotypes were examined for mineral composition, anthocyanin, phenolic and tannin contents, antioxidant characteristics and levels of individual phenolic compounds via GC-MS. Values were compared with those of 58 cultivars of blackberries (“B”), black raspberries (“BR”), cranberries (“C”), elderberries (“E”), grapes (“G”), red raspberries (“RR”) and strawberries (“S”). The phenolic content of “CC” (6955 μg·gfw-1) was greater than 2× that of “B”, “BR” and “E”. Phenolic contents of “A” samples (1058-1776 μg·gfw-1) were similar to those of “RR”, red “G” and “S”. Anthocyanin levels in “CC” (270 μg·gfw-1) resembled those in “C”. “A” did not contain anthocyanins. Fruit of “CC” and “A” possessed high tannin levels (9291 μg·gfw-1 and 1410–5403 μg·gfw-1, respectively) and exhibited high antioxidant potential (μmol·gfw-1 trolox equiv.). DPPH and FRAP values of “CC” (72.1 and 94.9, respectively) were greater than 2× those of “BR”. DPPH values of “A” (23.9–56.2) were ≥ values for “BR”, whereas “A” FRAP values (13.3–34.0) were similar to those of “B” and “RR”. However, the lipid-soluble antioxidant potential of lycopene-rich “A” was substantial. Levels of individual compounds varied among cultivars. Ca and Mg contents of “A” were less than those found in “CC” and “BR”. Other mineral levels were comparable.

Free access