Plant growth retardant (PGR) foliar sprays of daminozide at 4,000 or 8,000 mg·L-1 (ppm) and paclobutrazol drenches of 2 or 4 mg a.i. per pot were applied to `Big Smile', `Pacino', `Sundance Kid', `Sunspot', and `Teddy Bear' pot sunflowers (Helianthus annuus L.) to compare their chemical height control. Plant height varied among the cultivars due to genetic variation. The percentage reduction in plant height from the untreated control only was significant at the PGR level, indicating similar responses of all five cultivars to each PGR rate. Paclobutrazol drenches at 2 mg and daminozide foliar sprays at 4,000 or 8,000 mg·L-1 reduced plant height by about 24% when compared to the control. Paclobutrazol drenches at 4 mg produced plants that were 33% shorter than the control. Plant diameter of `Big Smile', `Pacino', or `Sundance Kid' was unaffected by daminozide, whereas `Sunspot' plants were smaller than the controls. Paclobutrazol drenches at 2 or 4 mg decreased plant diameter for all cultivars except `Teddy Bear', with the reduction being greater as paclobutrazol drench rates increased. The number of inflorescence buds increased by ≥18% with the use of daminozide sprays, while paclobutrazol drenches at 2 or 4 mg had no effect when compared to the untreated control. Paclobutrazol drenches of 2 or 4 mg offer the economic advantage to growers of increased plant density on greenhouse benches, while plants treated with daminozide had an increased bud count but would require a greater amount of bench space.
Brian E. Whipker and Ingram McCall
Amy Barker, Ingram McCall, and Brian E. Whipker
Three plant growth regulators (PGRs) were applied as substrate drenches; paclobutrazol (1, 2, 4, or 8 mg/pot), flurprimidol (0.5, 1, 2, or 4 mg/pot), or ethephon (125, 250, 500, or 1000 mg·L−1), plus an untreated control, to determine the efficacy of controlling excessive growth of ‘Imperial Dark Blue’ plumbago (Plumbago auriculata). No delay in flowering occurred with any of the PGR drenches, as compared with the untreated control. Plumbagos were responsive to both paclobutrazol and flurprimidol drenches. Concentrations of paclobutrazol and flurprimidol ≥1 mg/pot resulted in shorter plant heights than the untreated control. For producers desiring a moderate to high degree of control, 1 mg/pot drenches of either PGR could be suitable. All flurprimidol and paclobutrazol concentrations greater than 1 mg/pot resulted in excessive stunting and should be avoided. All ethephon drench concentrations were more consistent in controlling diameter, and increasing branching and flowering than paclobutrazol or flurprimidol. Based on the results of this study, the growth suppression of ethephon drenches was gradual, limiting overdose risks. Although plant diameters were not as small as plants treated with paclobutrazol or flurprimidol, diameter control was still adequate, and plants treated with ethephon drenches had a higher aesthetic appeal due to a more full appearance and increased flowering. With the use of an ethephon drench at 125 to 250 mg·L−1, plumbago producers have another PGR available to control excessive stem elongation and improve the flowering of plumbago.
Josh B. Henry, Ingram McCall, Brian Jackson, and Brian E. Whipker
A series of experiments investigated the effects of increasing phosphate–phosphorus (P) concentrations on the growth and development of four horticultural species. In experiment 1, petunia [Petunia atkinsiana (Sweet) D. Don ex W.H. Baxter] plants were grown using eight P concentrations, and we found that the upper bound for plant growth was at 8.72–9.08 mg·L−1 P, whereas concentrations ≤2.5 mg·L−1 P caused P deficiency symptoms. Experiment 2 investigated P growth response in two cultivars each of New Guinea impatiens (Impatiens hawkeri W. Bull) and vinca [Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don]. Growth for these plants was maximized with 6.43–12.42 mg·L−1 P. In experiment 3, ornamental peppers (Capsicum annuum L. ‘Tango Red’) were given an initial concentration of P for 6 weeks and then switched to 0 mg·L−1 P to observe whether plants could be supplied with sufficient levels of P, and finished without P to keep them compact. Plants switched to restricted P began developing P deficiency symptoms within 3 weeks; however, restricting P successfully limited plant growth. These experiments indicated that current P fertilization regimens exceed the P requirements of these bedding plants, and depending on species, concentrations of 5–15 mg·L−1 P maximize growth.
Brian E. Whipker, Ingram McCall, and Brian A. Krug
Flurprimidol was applied as a foliar spray (12.5, 25.0, 37.5, 50.0, or 62.5 mg·L-1) or as a substrate drench (0.015, 0.03, 0.06, 0.12, or 0.24 mg/pot a.i.) to determine its efficacy on `Blue Champion' exacum (Exacum affine). Flurprimidol substrate drenches were more consistent in controlling plant growth than foliar sprays. Substrate drenches of 0.03 mg/pot a.i. or foliar sprays ≥50 mg·L-1 resulted in smaller plant heights and diameters than the untreated control. With the use of flurprimidol, exacum growers have another plant growth regulator (PGR) available to control excessive growth.
Brian A. Krug, Brian E. Whipker, and Ingram McCall
Eight experiments were conducted to develop height control protocols for greenhouse-forced hyacinth (Hyacinthus orientalis) bulbs. `Pink Pearl' hyacinth bulbs were treated with flurprimidol preplant bulb soaks to determine optimal timing of treatment, soak duration, quantity of bulbs that could be treated before the solution lost efficacy, bulb location of solution uptake, and if higher concentrations of flurprimidol can be used to overcome stretch that occurs with extended cold treatment. No difference in height control occurred when bulbs were soaked in flurprimidol the day of, 1 day before, or 7 days before potting; therefore, growers can treat bulbs up to 1 week before potting with no difference in height control. All preplant bulb soak durations of 1, 5, 10, 20, or 40 min controlled plant height. Any soak durations ≥1.3 min resulted in similar height control, which would provide growers with a flexible time frame of 2 to 40 min in which to soak the bulbs. When 1 L of 20 mg·L-1 flurprimidol solution was used repeatedly over 20 batches of five bulbs, solution efficacy was similar from the first batch to the last batch, indicating the soak solution of flurprimidol can be used repeatedly without loss of efficacy. Soak solution temperature was also tested to determine its effect on flurprimidol and paclobutrazol uptake. Temperature of the soak solution (8, 16, or 24 °C) had no effect on flurprimidol and only at a temperature of 8 °C was the efficacy of paclobutrazol lower. Postharvest heights of `Pink Pearl' hyacinths were similar whether only the top, bottom, or the entire bulb was soaked. Control provided by flurprimidol, paclobutrazol, or uniconazole preplant bulb soaks varied among the three hyacinth cultivars Delft Blue, Jan Bos, and Pink Pearl, so growers will have to conduct their own trials to determine optimal cultivar response to preplant bulb soaks. Also, `Pacino' sunflowers (Helianthus annuus) were treated with residual soak solution of flurprimidol to determine if substrate drenches could be used as a disposal method. Fresh and residual solutions of flurprimidol (1.18, 2.37, or 4.73 mg/pot a.i.) applied to `Pacino' sunflowers were similar in their efficacy of controlling height, which would enable growers to avoid disposal problems of residual soak solutions.
Ben A. Bergmann, John M. Dole, and Ingram McCall
Increasing cut stem length and reducing crop production time are producers’ goals for numerous cut flower species. One or both of these aims was met in several field-grown cultivars through foliar application of gibberellic acid (GA3), but effectiveness varied by cultivar, application rate, and timing. Of the 13 cultivars tested, stem length was increased in nine cultivars [Toreador Red celosia (Celosia argentea), Camelot White foxglove (Digitalis purpurea), Imperial Giants Pink Perfection larkspur (Larkspur hybrids), Compliment mix lobelia (Lobelia hybrids), Nippon Taka ornamental pepper (Capsicum annuum), Amazon Neon Duo and Bouquet Purple sweet william (Dianthus hybrids), Summer Pastels yarrow (Achillea millefolium), and Benary’s Giant Scarlet zinnia (Zinnia elegans)], and time to harvest was decreased in four cultivars [High Tide White ageratum (Ageratum houstonianum), lobelia, ornamental pepper, and zinnia], when GA3 was applied as a foliar spray. Concentrations of 400, 800, and 1600 mg·L−1 GA3 were most effective. Application of GA3 resulted in malformed or smaller flowers or lighter green foliage in foxglove, lobelia, sweet william, and zinnia. In most cases, only one application was tested, and greatest response to GA3 was observed during 3–6 weeks post application. Gibberellic acid did not influence stem length in three cultivars [High Tide White ageratum, Aurora Deep Purple delphinium (Delphinium hybrids), and Column Lilac Lavender stock (Matthiola incana)], and decreased flower stem length in one cultivar (High Tide Blue ageratum). Four cultivars were identified as good candidates for further research given their promising responses to GA3 treatments.
Jared Barnes, Brian Whipker, Wayne Buhler, and Ingram McCall
Experiments were conducted to evaluate the appropriate concentration of flurprimidol for ‘Orange Tiger’ tiger lily (Lilium lancifolium), the persistence of residual effects the following year with ‘Orange Tiger’, and differences in flurprimidol’s effect between tiger lily cultivars. In Expt. 1 flurprimidol was applied as a preplant bulb soak to determine its efficacy on height control of ‘Orange Tiger’ tiger lily. Bulbs were hydrated in 17 °C water for 1 h, allowed to drain 1 h, given 10 min soaks of 0, 5, 10, 20, 40, 80, and 160 mg·L−1 flurprimidol, and then allowed to drain for 1 h before potting. In Expt. 2 ‘Orange Tiger’ tiger lilies from Expt. 1 were then planted into outdoor beds to evaluate residual carryover effects of flurprimidol. Expt. 3 involved comparison trials of ‘Pink Tiger’, ‘White Tiger’, and ‘Yellow Tiger’ tiger lilies to determine if cultivars responded differently to flurprimidol drenches. Flurprimidol at 10 to 20 mg·L−1 effectively controlled stem elongation of ‘Orange Tiger’. No residual effect of flurprimidol on ‘Orange Tiger’ plant growth was observed a year after application. Optimal concentrations of flurprimidol for ‘Pink Tiger’ and ‘White Tiger’ were 2 to 5 mg·L−1 and for ‘Yellow Tiger’ 20 to 30 mg·L−1. Results showed that preplant bulb soaks prevented excessive height and provided plants that were more suitable in height for retail sales. Differential responses of ‘Pink Tiger’, ‘White Tiger’, and ‘Yellow Tiger’ tiger lilies to flurprimidol indicate that trials are required to customize optimal concentrations for other cultivars.
Jared Barnes, Brian Whipker, Ingram McCall, and Jonathan Frantz
To produce floriculture crops like mealy-cup sage (Salvia farinacea), growers must be equipped with cultural information including the ability to recognize and characterize nutrient disorders. ‘Evolution’ mealy-cup sage plants were grown in silica-sand culture to induce, describe, and photograph symptoms of nutritional disorders. Plants received a complete modified Hoagland's all-nitrate solution of (macronutrient concentrations in millimoles) 15 nitrate-nitrogen (N), 1.0 phosphorus (P), 6.0 potassium (K), 5.0 calcium (Ca), 2.0 magnesium (Mg), and 2.0 sulfur (S) plus (micronutrient concentrations in micromoles) 72 iron (Fe), 18 manganese (Mn), 3 copper (Cu), 3 zinc (Zn), 45 boron (B), and 0.1 molybdenum (Mo). Nutrient-deficient treatments were induced with a complete nutrient formula minus one of the nutrients. The B-toxicity treatment was induced by increasing the element 10-fold higher than the complete nutrient formula. Reagent-grade chemicals and deionized (DI) water of 18 million ohms per centimeter purity were used to formulate treatment solutions. We monitored plants daily to document and photograph sequential series of symptoms as they developed. Typical symptomology of nutrient disorders and corresponding tissue concentrations were determined. Out of 13 treatments, 12 exhibited symptomology; Mo was asymptomatic. Symptoms of N, P, S, Ca, and K deficiencies and B toxicity manifested early; therefore, these disorders may be more likely problems encountered by growers. Unique symptoms were observed on plants grown under N-, Cu-, and Zn-deficient conditions. Necrosis was a common symptom observed, but use of other diagnostic criteria about location on the plant and progression of the disorder can aid growers in diagnosing nutrient disorders of mealy-cup sage.
Barbara A. Fair, Brian Whipker,, Ingram McCall, and Wayne Buhler
Sages (Salvia sp.) have long been popular as summer annuals, culinary herbs, and landscape perennials. We selected ‘Hot Lips’ hybrid sage [Salvia ×microphylla (Salvia greggii × S. microphylla)], a recently introduced perennial sage, to assess efficacy of the growth regulator flurprimidol for controlling height. Substrate drenches of flurprimidol at 0, 0.25, 0.50, 1.0, 2, and 4 mg per pot were applied using 240 mL of solution per pot on 17 June 2010. Plant height was recorded at treatment, 27 days after treatment (DAT), and 48 DAT. Flurprimidol drench concentrations of 0.25 mg per pot and higher controlled plant height by 20% to 41% 27 DAT and by 26% to 50% 48 DAT. While all treatments at 48 DAT produced a significantly shorter plant, concentrations between 0.25 to 1 mg would provide growers options for controlling plant growth by 26% to 44%. Using concentrations over 1.0 mg did not produce any additional control of height in hybrid sage.
Brian A. Krug, Brian E. Whipker, Ingram McCall, and Jonathan Frantz
High relative humidity (RH) can cause lower concentrations of boron (B) accumulating in plants. The common greenhouse practice of controlling excess temperatures by applying mist irrigation to young plants (plugs) can result in elevated RH levels, especially with plugs grown in high heat and humidity conditions of summer. ‘Dynamite Yellow’ pansy (Viola ×wittrockiana Gams.), ‘White Storm’ petunia (Petunia ×hybrida Vilm.), and ‘Festival Apricot’ gerbera (Gerbera jamesonii Bolus) plugs were grown in high or ambient RH conditions to determine the effect RH had on B uptake. Results indicate that an increase in RH decreased the amount of water the plant lost as a result of transpiration resulting in lower concentrations of B in shoot tissue. Boron concentrations in leaf tissue were 9.43, 10.56, and 17.81 mg·L−1 in pansy, petunia, and gerbera plants, respectively, grown in high RH conditions. These values were significantly lower than pansy, petunia, and gerbera plants grown in ambient RH conditions (19.94, 25.49, and 42.71 mg·L−1, respectively). Leaf distortion, consistent with B deficiency symptoms, was present in petunia and gerbera plants. Similar trends were observed when the experiment was repeated and leaf distortion was present in all species. This provides convincing evidence that the distorted growth observed in pansy, petunia, and gerbera plug production is the result of limited B caused by excessive humidity.