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Ikuo Kataoka and Kenji Beppu

The contribution of the UV light component on the skin coloration was determined in `Hakuho' peach. Detached fruit partially covered with a UV-proof polyvinylchloride (PVC) film and a polyethylene film were exposed to sunlight for 4 days. Red coloration of the fruit and anthocyanin content in the skin were considerably reduced with the UV-proof PVC film. Irradiation with a UV fluorescent lamp at 3.58 W·m-2 markedly enhanced the red color development, while white fluorescent light at 120 μmol·m-2·s-1 did not affect the coloration. UV irradiation also increased the anthocyanin content in the cultured skin discs with increasing irradiance up to above 7.3 W·m-2. These results suggest that the UV component contributes significantly to the enhancement of the fruit coloration by sunlight exposure.

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Akiko Watari, Toshio Hanada, Hisayo Yamane, Tomoya Esumi, Ryutaro Tao, Hideaki Yaegaki, Masami Yamaguchi, Kenji Beppu and Ikuo Kataoka

Most commercial cultivars of japanese plum (Prunus salicina Lindl.) exhibit S-RNase-based gametophytic self-incompatibility (GSI), although some self-compatible (SC) cultivars exist. In this study, we characterized S-RNase and SFB, the pistil and pollen S determinants of the specificity of the GSI reaction, respectively, from four S-haplotypes, including a SC (Se) and three SI (Sa, Sb, and Sc) S-haplotypes of japanese plum. The genomic organization and structure of the SC Se-haplotype appear intact, because the relative transcriptional orientation of its S-RNase and SFB and their intergenetic distance are similar to those of the other three SI S-haplotypes of japanese plum and other Prunus L. species. Furthermore, there is no apparent defect in the DNA sequences of Se-RNase and SFBe. However, a series of transcriptional analyses, including real-time reverse transcriptase–polymerase chain reaction, showed that the Se-RNase transcript levels in the pistil are significantly lower than those of the Sa-, Sb-, and Sc-RNases, although transcripts of SFBa, SFBb, SFBc, and SFBe are present at similar levels in pollen. Furthermore, no Se-RNase spot was detected in two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis profiles of stylar extracts of the cultivars with the Se-haplotype. We discuss the possible molecular basis of SC observed with the Se-haplotype with special reference to the insufficient Se-RNase accumulation incited by the very low transcriptional level of Se-RNase in pistils.