Effects of rootstock and ground and fertigated applied nitrogen on productivity and fruit quality of `Fuji' apple was studied. In the fertigation portion of this project, treatments were as follows: 1) 22.4 kg N/ha per year, 2) 89.7 kg N/ha per year, 3) 89.7 kg N/ha per year plus 78.5 kg K/ha per year; 4) 156.9 kg N/ha per year; 5) 156.9 kg N/ha per year plus 78.5 kg K/ha per year. Fruit had optimum quality when leaf N concentrations were approximately between 1.9% to 2.15% dwt during light-cropping years and approximately between 2.12% to 2.40% during heavy-cropping years. Cross-sectional areas of `Nagafu-6 Fuji' trees were slightly smaller than those in `BC-2 Fuji' trees. Preliminary data also showed that mineral concentrations of leaves from various strains of `Fuji' do not significantly vary. In 1998, trees from 22.4 kg N/ha zone had lower leaf N, resulting in lower leaf area and lower photosynthesis but better fruit color than those with higher N applications. In 1998, trees on Ottawa-3 had higher yield than those on B.9, M.26, and M.7. Trees on B9 had lower leaf N and smaller fruit than those on other rootstocks. Fruit on M.7 rootstock were larger, but had the worst color among all rootstocks. Fruit on M.9 had better color than those other rootstocks. Trees with 2.43-m in-row spacing had significantly higher photosynthesis than those of 1.22-m spacing.
James R. Schupp, Esmaeil Fallahi, and Ik-Jo Chun
Studies were initiated in Idaho and New York to determine the effects of Surround, a kaolin clay particle film product recently labeled as a crop protectant for agricultural crops, on fruit maturity and quality of `Fuji' and `Honeycrisp' apples (Malus×domestica) and fruit mineral concentration of `Fuji' apples. Surround reduced fruit weight, red color, and the incidence of sunburn of `Fuji' apples in Idaho. Sunburn did not occur on `Honeycrisp' in the New York study. In that study, Surround had no effect on fruit weight or red fruit color when applied in May and June but reduced fruit weight and red color when applied later. The reduction in red color development observed in both `Fuji' and `Honeycrisp' was not related to mineral nutrients or to a delay in fruit maturity. Surround applications resulted in undesirable residues in the basin and in the cavity of harvested fruit that were not satisfactorily removed by brushing on a commercial packing line. While effective for reducing sunburn, Surround was ineffective for increasing red fruit color of apples.
Esmaeil Fallahi, W. Michael Colt, Bahar Fallahi, and Ik-Jo Chun
Tree fruit rootstocks are used to influence precocity, tree size, fruit quality, yield efficiency, mineral uptake, and to withstand adverse environmental conditions. In this paper, we will briefly discuss the history and literature of apple (Malus domestica) rootstocks and their effects on scion tree growth, yield, fruit quality, leaf mineral nutrition, and photosynthesis. Then, the results of our long-term study on the effects of rootstocks on tree growth, yield, fruit quality and leaf mineral nutrition, and one season of photosynthesis measurement in `BC-2 Fuji' will be presented and discussed. In this study, `Fuji' trees on `Malling 9 NAKBAT337' (M.9) rootstock had the smallest trunk cross-sectional area (TCA), highest yield efficiency, and were the most precocious followed by those on `East Malling-Long Ashton 26' (M.26 EMLA) and `East Malling-Long Ashton 7' (M.7 EMLA). Trees on M.7 EMLA often had larger fruit with less color than those on M.9 and M.26 EMLA. Trees on M.7 EMLA frequently had greater leaf K than those on other rootstocks. Trees on M.26 EMLA always had greater leaf Mg than those on other rootstocks. Leaves from the current terminal shoots (CTS) of trees on M.9 had higher net photosynthesis and transpiration than those on M.7 EMLA rootstock during 1998 growing season.
Esmaeil Fallahi, W. Michael Colt, Craig R. Baird, Bahar Fallahi, and Ik-Jo Chun
The influence of three rates of nitrogen (N) and fruit bagging on fruit peel and flesh mineral concentrations and fruit quality in `BC-2 Fuji' apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) trees on Malling 9 (M.9) was studied. Increasing N application decreased fruit peel red color, fruit N, iron (Fe), and manganese (Mn). Fruit from trees receiving 10.72 oz (303.9 g) N per year had higher evolved ethylene and respiration during poststorage ripening tests. Bagging of fruit reduced fruit peel red color, soluble solids concentrations (SSC), and dry weight as compared to nonbagged fruit. Bagged fruit had higher N, potassium (K), and copper (Cu) than nonbagged fruit. Fruit peel had a greater percentage of dry weight, and higher concentrations of all tested minerals compared to fruit flesh.