Plants of chrysanthemum [Dendranthema × grandiflorum (Ramat.) Kitamura], radish (Raphanus sativus L.), corn (Zea mays L.), and cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) were grown under 8-, 12-, 18- or 24-hour daylengths and at three photosynthetic photon fluxes (PPF) within each daylength to evaluate growth and development responses to daily quantum integral (PPF × duration). For the same daily quantum integral, dry matter accumulation and leaf area development were less under 24-hour than under 18-hour daylengths with chrysanthemum and radish. With corn and cucumber, these values were similar under 12-, 18-, and 24-hour daylengths. In all of the species, leaf area and dry matter development were lowest under the 8-hour daylength. Continuous (24-hour) daylength produced some growth abnormalities in radish and chrysanthemum. Specific leaf weight in all species and flower node count in cucumber were linearly related to daily quantum integral up to the highest values examined (73.5 mol·day-1·m-2). All species showed expected photoperiod responses with respect to flowering, but the rate of floral development and number of flower buds formed were highest under the highest PPF (and highest daily quantum integral) treatments. The results indicate that field phenotypes can be obtained in controlled environment (CE) conditions, providing the field daylength and daily quantum integral conditions are reproduced.
I.J. Warrington and R.A. Norton
A.M. Armitage, N.G. Seager, I.J. Warrington, D.H. Greer, and J. Reyngoud
Incremental increases in temperature from 14 to 22 to 30C resulted in linear increases in stem length and node number and decreases in stem diameter and stem strength of Oxypetalum caeruleum (D. Don.) Decne. Higher temperatures also resulted in additional flower abortion, reduced time to flowering, and fewer flowering stems per inflorescence. Reduction in the photosynthetic photon flux (PPF) from 695 to 315 μmol·s-1·m-2 had similar effects as increasing the temperature on vegetative characteristics, but had little effect on reproductive ones. The rate of stem elongation was greatest at low PPF for all temperatures and at high temperature for all PPF treatments. Net photosynthesis rose between 14 and 22C and declined at 30C for all PPF treatments. Long photoperiods (12 or 14 hours) resulted in longer internodes, longer stems, and more flowers per cyme than short photoperiods (8 or 10 hours), but photoperiod had little effect on flowering time. Treatments to reduce latex coagulant and silver thiosulfate treatments had no significant effect on vase life.
A.M. Armitage, N.G. Seager, I.J. Warrington, and D.H. Greer
A progressive increase in temperature from 14 to 30C resulted in linear increases in stem length and node number and decreases in stem diameter and stem strength. Higher temperatures also resulted in additional flower abortion, reduced time to flowering and fewer flowering stems per inflorescence. Reduction in the photosynthetic photon flux (PPF) from 695 to 315 μmole m-2s-1 had similar effects as increasing the temperature on vegetative parameters but had little effect on reproductive parameters. The rate of stem elongation was greatest at low PPF for all temperatures and at high temperature for all PPF treatments. Net photosynthesis rose between 14 and 22C and declined at 30C for all PPF treatments. Long photoperiods (12, 14 hr.) resulted in longer internodes, longer stems and more flowers per cyme than short photoperiods (8, 10 hr) but photoperiod had little effect on flowering time.
I.J. Warrington, T.A. Fulton, E.A. Halligan, and H.N. de Silva
Container-grown `Delicious', `Golden Delicious', `Braeburn', `Fuji' and `Royal Gala' apple [Malus sylvestris (L.) Mill. var. domestica (Borkh.) Mansf.] trees, on Malling 9 (M.9) rootstock, were subjected to a range of different maximum/minimum air temperature regimes for up to 80 days after full bloom (DAFB) in controlled environments to investigate the effects of temperature on fruit expansion, final fruit weight, and fruit maturation. Fruit expansion rates were highly responsive to temperature with those at a mean of 20 °C being ≈10 times greater than those at a mean of 6 °C. All cultivars exhibited the same general response although `Braeburn' consistently showed higher expansion rates at all temperatures compared with lowest rates for `Golden Delicious' and intermediate rates for both `Delicious' and `Fuji'. The duration of cell division, assessed indirectly by measuring expansion rate, appeared to be inversely related to mean temperature (i.e., prolonged under cooler conditions). Subsequently, fruit on trees from the coolest controlled temperature treatment showed greater expansion rates when transferred to the field and smaller differences in fruit size at harvest than would have been expected from the measured expansion rates under the cool treatment. Nonetheless, mean fruit weight from warm postbloom treatments was up to four times greater at harvest maturity than that from cool temperature treatments. Postbloom temperature also markedly affected fruit maturation. Fruit from warm postbloom temperature conditions had a higher soluble solids concentration, more yellow background color, lower flesh firmness, and greater starch hydrolysis than fruit from cooler temperatures.
I.J. Warrington, T.A. Fulton, E.A. Halligan, P.T. Austin, A.J. Hall, and P.W. Gandar
Apple fruitlet growth responses to temperature were studied, for different durations following bloom (DAFB), under controlled environment (CE) conditions. Container-grown trees of `Red Delicious', `Golden Delicious', `Braeburn', `Fuji', and `Royal Gala' were placed in different maximum/minimum temperature regimes, ranging from 9/3 to 25/15°C for various periods, including 10–40, 10–80, and 40–80 DAFB. Temperature treatments were selected to identify possible differences between mean and maximum/minimum differential effects Trees were placed outdoors following the CE treatment to allow impacts on subsequent fruit development to be determined. The impact of temperature was dramatic. For example, fruit expansion rate for `Red Delicious' varied from 0.12 mm/day at 9/3°C to 0.98 mm/day at 25/15°C. Furthermore, the cell division phase was considerably longer under cooler temperatures. The influence of post-bloom temperature, for even short durations, was evident at harvest in both fruit size and in different fruit maturity indices. Differences in temperature sensitivity were evident amongscultivars. A detailed model has been developed to integrate the responses that have been determined.