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D.W. Ramming, R.L. Emershad, P. Spiegel-Roy, N. Sahar, and I. Baron

Immature grape embryos from early ripening genotypes of Vitis vinifera were successfully cultured in vitro on Difco orchid agar or a modified White's agar medium. Germination was increased in vitro for five genotypes from 0%, 7%, 11%, 12%, and 16% in vivo to 15%, 24%, 23%, 34%, and 24%, respectively. Subculturing embryos onto liquid culture from seeds that failed to germinate on agar also was possible. Differences in germination rates, as affected by pollen, were significant. This method will allow accelerated development of early ripening cultivars by allowing breeders to use such genotypes as females, as well as males.

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P. Spiegel-Roy, S. Cohen, I. Baron, R. Assaf, S. Ben-A'haron, and M.J. Striem