The nitrogen contents of leaves were the same on the first measurement of 9 May 2003 and the date was immediately prior date to application of different training angles to the one-year-old shoots grown during the previous year. However, the nitrogen content began to be different according to training angles as early as 8 days after the training of one-year-old branches. The 90° branch showed higher nitrogen content on the eighth date from the training application against 120° or non-trained slanting branch. The 90° branch continuously demonstrated larger nitrogen contents on 23 May and 2 June against non-trained branch. While, the 120° branch began to show the tendency of larger nitrogen content compared with slanting branches from 23rd May which was 2 weeks from training, and this difference continued up to 2 June 2003. The chlorophyll (SPAD value) of the leaves trained to 120° and 90° were the same at the time of initial training was applied on 9t May 2003, but a significant reduction of the chlorophyll (SPAD value) was found as early as eighth date from the first training date and this difference was reduced to be the same on the date of 2 weeks after the initial training date, but the chlorophyll (SPAD value) became different again on 2 June 2003. Correlations between chlorophyll contents (SPAD value) and photosynthetic rates influenced by training angles were highly positive in 90° training and in 120-degree training than non-training. Additionally, the correlations between the specific leaf weight and chlorophyll contents (SPAD value) were highly positive in 120° training than in 90° training or non-training.
Hyun-Hee Han*, Yong-Koo Kim and Jae-Young Lee
Gyeong Ran Do, Ju Hee Rhee, Wan Soon Kim, Yun Im Kang, In Myung Choi, Jeom Hwa Han, Hyun Hee Han, Su Hyun Ryu and Han Chan Lee
Lilium lancifolium (syn. L. tigrinum) is the only polyploidy-complex species involving both diploid (2n = 2x = 24) and triploid (2n = 3x = 36) plants in the genus. The origin of natural triploid remains a mystery and research has been limited mainly to chromosomal studies that have overlooked research on pollen ontogeny. By spatiotemporal comparison of the development and morphology of diploid and triploid pollen grains, we study the correlations between pollen fertility and morphological development in diploid and triploid plants and propose the necessity and importance of further research on natural polyploid-ontogenetic diversity. In this comparative investigation, we used various microscopy techniques including histological analyses, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The main morphological differences between triploid and diploid pollen grains started with abnormal tetrad formation of triploid, followed by inadequate amylogenesis and amylolysis in young microspores, and finished with the formation of an abnormal structure of pollen surface layers in maturing pollen grains, which finally resulted in pollen grain unfolding and male sterility. From observing the series of morphological events that induced male-sterile pathway in natural triploid pollens, this study showed a variety of correlations between pollen development and fertility, which differed from male sterility resulting from gene mutation, indicating that there exists greater variability in pollen male-sterile ontogeny. Our results suggest that multilateral research is required for understanding the fickle ontogeny of natural male-sterile polyploid.