Our goal was to determine the ultrastructure features and the dynamic changes in polysaccharides and neutral lipids in developing anthers of rose balsam (Impatiens balsamina), and to better understand the mechanisms controlling male reproductive development. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) techniques were used to study the ultrastructural characteristics of the anthers, and histochemical methods were used to determine levels of polysaccharides and lipids. The cytokinesis in the microsporocyte meiosis was simultaneous type, and microspore tetrads were mainly tetrahedral. The pollen exine began to form at the tetrad stage. The mature pollen grains were oval-shaped and bicellular. Accumulation of reserve substances began at the late microsporogenesis stage, and an abundance of starch grains and lipids were stored in pollen grains at anthesis. Polysaccharides and lipids changed in different stages and played an important role in anther development. Moreover, the calcium oxalate crystals may protect the pollen and suggest that calcium distribution is related to anther development.