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Nguyen V. Hue and Yvonne Mai

Manganese (Mn) toxicity in crops is a serious problem in Hawaii, especially Kauai and Oahu, where most soils are highly weathered. To devise a management strategy to control Mn toxicity, a greenhouse experiment was conducted on an acid (pH 4.4) Oxisol (Wahiawa series) having 15g·kg-1 total Mn. Factorial combinations of lime (0, 2.0, and 4.0 g·kg-1 CaCO3) and two composts (made from chicken manure and from sewage sludge at 0, 5, and 10 g·kg-1) were applied to the soil, which was subsequently planted to watermelon (Citrullus lanatus Thunb. `Crimson Sweet'). Our preliminary results showed that: 1) liming reduced Mn extractability and phytoavailability, but the reduction in Mn per unit increase in pH was much less than predicted by theory; 2) for good watermelon growth, soluble Mn, as extracted by the saturated paste method, should be <2.0 mg·L-1 corresponding to a soil pH >5.7; 3) unlike the saturated-paste extractable Mn, the Mehlich3-extractable Mn varied less with pH in a given soil series than between soil series; 4) effects of composts on Mn toxicity varied with compost properties, especially their Ca content and pH altering capacity; and 5) the diagnostic criteria for Mn toxicity in watermelon are tentatively proposed as: leaf Mn >1000 mg·kg-1 and leaf Ca/Mn ratio (g·g-1) <25.

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Chandrappa Gangaiah, Amjad Ahmad, Hue V. Nguyen, Koon-Hui Wang and Theodore J.K. Radovich

The application of locally available invasive algae biomass as a fertilizer for crop production in Hawaii is being investigated as a substitute for imported chemical fertilizers. Three closely related greenhouse trials were conducted to determine if the algae served as a source of potassium (K) on growth, yield, and K mineral nutrition in pak choi (Brassica rapa, Chinensis group). In the first trial, three algal species (Gracilaria salicornia, Kappaphycus alvarezii, and Eucheuma denticulatum) were applied at five rates of K, each to evaluate their effects on growth and K nutrition of pak choi plants. The pak choi was direct seeded into 0.0027-m3 pots containing peatmoss-based growth media. In trial 2, pak choi was grown in peat media at six rates of K provided by algae (E. denticulatum) or by potassium nitrate (KNO3). In trial 3, the six rates of K were provided through algae (K. alvarezii), KNO3, and potassium chloride (KCl) and were compared for growth and K nutrition. Results from the first greenhouse trial showed no significant differences among the three algal species in yield or tissue K content of pak choi. However, plant yield and tissue K concentration were increased with application rates. The maximum yield and tissue K were observed when K was provided within the range of 250–300 kg·ha−1. Similarly, in Expts. 2 and 3, there were no significant differences between commercial K fertilizers and algal K species for yield. Only K rates were significant for yields and tissue K concentrations. It was concluded that K in the invasive algae was similarly available as K in commercial synthetic fertilizers for pak choi growth in terms of yield and tissue K content under our experimental conditions.

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Archana P. Pant, Theodore J.K. Radovich, Nguyen V. Hue and Susan C. Miyasaka

Previous work has demonstrated the potential of compost tea to enhance plant growth and nutritional status. One factor thought to contribute to variability in the efficacy of compost tea is the amount of compost per unit volume of water. To address these gaps in our understanding, two greenhouse trials and two field trials were conducted to investigate the effects of various extraction ratios on the growth, mineral nitrogen (N), and phytonutrient content of pak choi (Brassica rapa, Chinensis) and on soil biological properties. In greenhouse experiments, plants were fertilized with a single rate of chicken manure-based thermophilic compost. In field trials, three fertilizer treatments: 1) rendered meat byproduct or Tankage (Island Commodities, Honolulu, HI); 2) soluble fertilizer (16:16:16); and 3) chicken manure-based thermophilic compost were applied. Aerated vermicompost teas were prepared using chicken manure-based vermicompost and water at various ratios. Pak choi plants were treated weekly for 4 weeks with 10%, 5%, 3%, and 1% vermicompost teas in the greenhouse experiments and 10% and 5% teas in the field trials. Applications of vermicompost tea significantly increased plant growth, N content, total carotenoids, and total glucosinolates in plant tissue; this response was greatest in chicken manure-fertilized treatments. Increases in yield and phytonutrient content were associated with increased N uptake. Vermicompost tea also increased soil respiration and dehydrogenase activity over the control (water). Plant growth, phytonutrient content, and microbial activities in soil increased with increasing concentrations of vermicompost tea. Within the range of concentrations evaluated (1%–10%), greatest plant growth response was observed with 5% and 10% vermicompost tea, indicating that the optimal water-to-vermicompost ratio for extraction is lower than 50:1 and is likely in the range of 10:1 to 20:1. The findings suggest that vermicompost tea could be used to improve plant nutrient status and enhance soil biological properties in vegetable production.

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Norman Q. Arancon, Archana Pant, Theodore Radovich, Nguyen V. Hue, Jesse K. Potter and Chad E. Converse

Greenhouse experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of different concentrations of vermicompost water extracts (teas) and seed soaking duration on germination of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) and lettuce (Lactuca sativa) seeds. In the first experiment, tomato and lettuce seeds were soaked in vermicompost teas prepared from chicken manure-based vermicomposts for 9 hours. The concentrations of the extracts used were 10%, 5%, 3%, 1% (1:10, 1:20, 1:33, and 1:100 vermicompost-to-water ratio by volume), and 0% (water control). Seeds were sown in peat–perlite medium, and seedlings were harvested after 4 weeks. Soaking seeds in vermicompost teas significantly (P < 0.0001) increased germination percentage and seedling growth of tomato and lettuce compared with control. The response to concentrations of the vermicompost tea was generally linear. In another experiment, tea produced from food waste-based vermicompost was used. Tomato seeds were soaked in 20%, 10%, 5%, 1%, and 0% teas after 24 hours of soaking and sown into a sphagnum moss-based medium. Plant responses were linear and quadratic for germination and growth, respectively, with 1% vermicompost tea increasing germination, whereas 5% vermicompost tea significantly promoted growth. A third experiment was done to evaluate the interaction of a range of vermicompost tea concentrations (20%, 10%, 5%, 1%, and 0%) and length of soaking (24, 12, 8, 4, 1 hours, and 0: no soaking) on the germination of tomato seeds. There was a significant interaction (P < 0.001) between the concentration of vermicompost teas and lengths of soaking. Soaking duration generally had a significantly positive and linear effect on germination of tomato seeds across the concentrations of vermicompost tea. Germination rates of tomato seeds were significantly greater after 8, 12, and 24 hours of soaking. However, within each soaking duration, concentrations of vermicompost teas had variable effects on seed germination. The presence of N-indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), cytokinin, gibberellins, and humic acids in the teas could have been responsible for the faster germination of tomato seeds when soaked at lower concentrations and longer soaking times.

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Susan C. Miyasaka, Jeff B. Million, Nguyen V. Hue and Charles E. McCulloch

Possible boron (B) deficiency symptoms were observed on avocado (Persea americana Mill. `Sharwil') grown in Kona, Hawaii. To determine the B requirement of young, `Sharwil' avocado trees, two greenhouse experiments were conducted. In a soil study, seven B treatments (0, 3.7, 11, 22, 44, 89, and 178 mg·kg–1 soil fines) were applied to 1-year-old grafted `Sharwil' avocado trees grown for 13 weeks in a Tropofolist soil. Due to the low and variable fractions of soil fines in this rocky soil, extractable soil B concentration did not appear to be a good predictor of B requirements by avocados. Adequate foliar B concentrations in `Sharwil' avocado trees based on dry weight and area of new leaves ranged from 37 (±3) to 65 (±4) and from 31 (±10) to 78 (±13) mg·kg–1 (dry-weight basis), respectively. (Means are followed by standard errors of the mean in parentheses.) In a hydroponics study, 6-month-old grafted `Sharwil' avocado trees were supplied with four levels of B (0, 1, 10, and 100 μm). At 11 months after B treatment initiation, leaves with deformed margins and a “shot-hole” appearance were first observed at a solution level of 0 μm B. At 14 months after B treatment initiation, foliar B concentrations that were associated with 12% to 14% incidence of deformed leaves ranged from 9.8 to 13.5 mg·kg–1 (dry-weight basis). Although `Sharwil' avocados are reportedly susceptible to B deficiency, foliar B concentrations required for adequate growth and those associated with B deficiency symptoms are similar to those for other cultivars.