Approach-grafted 1-year-old `Gala'/M7 apple trees were grown with both tops for the remainder of the 2003 season in a greenhouse. Trees were supplied with >100% (control, PRD100) or 50% (PRD50, DI50) of daily ETc either applied to one root compartment only (PRD100, PRD50) or divided evenly across both root compartments (control and DI50). ETc was estimated from gravimetric measurements, and irrigation was switched between wet and dry root compartments several times throughout the experiment. Soil moisture was measured both gravimetrically (tripod) and volumetrically (time-domain reflectometry). Predawn leaf water potential (υpd) and single leaf gas exchange (photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, and transpiration) were recorded daily, and sap flow in stems and roots was monitored continuously using the heat-pulse technique. Leaves were collected for abscisic acid (ABA) determination following gas exchange measurements. Regardless of irrigation placement (i.e., PRD or DI), both 50% ETc treatments experienced similar declines in υpd and single leaf gas exchange relative to control levels. In addition, ABA concentrations were similar for PRD50 and DI50, and were significantly higher than the control and PRD100 treatments. PRD100 trees had similar υpd as control trees; however, gas exchange was reduced >25% compared to the control. Bulk leaf ABA concentration did not differ significantly from control levels and does not by itself explain the down regulation of stomata with PRD100.
Todd C. Einhorn, Horst W. Caspari, and Steve Green
Todd C. Einhorn, Horst W. Caspari, Steve Green, and Greg Litus
One-year-old `Gala'/M7 apple trees were potted into 30-L containers and approach-grafted about 45 cm above the graft union in late Spring 2003. Trees were grown with both tops for the remainder of the 2003 season in a greenhouse. In Apr. 2004, one of the tops was removed. Trees were fully watered by an overhead irrigation system until July 2004, when trees were subjected to one of four irrigation regimes: control received >100% of ETc applied evenly to the two pots; PRD100 received >100% ETc applied to one pot only; and two regimes received 50% ETc applied to either one (PRD50) or both pots (DI50). Both gravimetric (tripod) and volumetric (time-domain reflectometry) soil moisture measurements were taken daily prior to and after irrigations. In addition, heavy isotope H2O (18O) was applied to one of the two root compartments and analyzed in the leaves to further determine the validity of the model. Sap flow was monitored in six split-rooted trees using miniaturized heat-pulse probes inserted into the stem above the graft union and into each of the two root systems below the graft union. Under fully irrigated conditions, root sap flow was proportional to root trunk cross-sectional area, and was not a function of root system origin (i.e., roots of mother plant with original top remaining or roots of daughter plant with original top detached). Water uptake from a previously dried root zone was rapid when the irrigated side was switched, but much more gradual when the other side was maintained wet. Interactions between soil moisture and sap flow in relation to factors governing canopy demand will be presented.
Horst W. Caspari, M. Hossein Behboudian, and David J. Chalmers
Five-year old `Hosui' Asian pear (Pyrus serotina Rehder) trees growing in drainage lysimeters and trained onto a Tatura trellis were subjected to three different irrigation regimes. Weekly water use (WU) was calculated using the mass-balance approach. Soil-water content of control lysimeters was kept at pot capacity, while deficit irrigation was applied before [regulated deficit irrigation (RDI)] and during the period of rapid fruit growth [late deficit irrigation (LDI)]. Soil-water content was maintained at ≈50% and 75% of pot capacity for RDI and LDI, respectively. Deficit irrigation reduced mean WU during RDI and LDI by 20%. The reduced WU was caused by lower stomatal conductance (gs) on deficit-irrigated trees. RDI trees had more-negative diurnal leaf water potentials (ψl). The ψl, gs, and WU remained lower for 2 weeks after RDI was discontinued. RDI reduced shoot extension and summer pruning weights, whereas winter pruning weights were not different between treatments. Except for the final week of RDI, fruit growth was not reduced, and fruit from RDI grew faster than the control during the first week after RDI. In contrast, fruit volume measurements showed that fruit growth was clearly inhibited by LDI. Final fruit size and yield, however, were not different between treatments. Return bloom was reduced by RDI but was not affected by LDI.
A. Richard Renquist, Horst W. Caspari, and David J. Chalmers
Nashi pear (Pyrus serotina Rehder, cv. Hosui) trees were planted in 12 computerized 1m-wide drainage lysimeters in September 1987. During the 1990 season tree water use was monitored via lysimeter and neutron probe readings. Diurnal leaf water relations were studied using a pressure chamber for water potential (ψ) and a porometer for leaf conductance (gs). Xylem sap trunk flow velocities were measured with an experimental heat pulse device and converted to xylem flux. Close agreement existed between 24 hr xylem flux and lysimeter water use when comparing trees with different soil water content. Xylem flux also was very sensitive to changes in evaporative demand. During 9–13 day drying cycles pre-dawn ψ became progressively lower, morning decline more rapid, and afternoon recovery slower. The diurnal gs pattern also shifted during drying cycles, such that gs of water stressed trees always decreased from time of first measurement of sunlit leaves rather than increasing during the morning as on non-stressed trees. Late afternoon was the best time to distinguish between fully irrigated and stressed trees using gs measurements.
Horst W. Caspari, M. Hossein Behhoudian, David J. Chalmers, and A. Richard Renquist
Seasonal water use data are presented for 4-year-old Pyrus serotina Rehder cv. Hosui growing in drainage lysimeters and trained onto a Tatura trellis. Weekly water use (WU) was calculated using the mass balance approach. For 8 consecutive weeks during late summer, instantaneous WU was also measured by the compensation heat-pulse technique for measuring sap flow. Although good agreement was found between the two methods for 4 weeks after probe installation, discrepancies increased after this time. Water use was highest in early to mid-January in New Zealand, averaging ≈8 liters/tree per day, or 2 liters·m-2 canopy surface area/day. Total water use over the growing season was 1070 liters/tree, or 245 liters·m-2 canopy surface area. The correlation coefficient between weekly WU and evaporation from a nearby Class A pan was 0.81 for the season. Weekly crop coefficients thus calculated for the well-watered trees ranged from 0.15 to 0.55 and 0.20 to 0.83 when calculated using canopy surface area and projected ground area, respectively. Low values were due to low values of canopy leaf area early in the season. Withholding irrigation during three periods resulted in a gradual decline in water use. Water-stressed trees had a lower predawn water potential than fully irrigated trees. This pattern was followed by a more-rapid decline during the morning, and a slower recovery during late afternoon and early evening. Midday leaf water potential never fell below -2.5 MPa.
Horst W. Caspari, M. Hossein Behboudian, David J. Chalmers, Brent E. Clothier, and Fritz Lenz
David J. Chalmers, Preston K. Andrews, Kevin M. Harris, Ewen A. Cameron, and Horst W. Caspari
The design of a type of drainage lysimeter, as tested with trees of Pyrus serotina Rehder var. culta Rehder `Hosui' is described. All lysimeter operations and monitoring of irrigation and drainage volumes were managed by a “multi-tasking” controller/datalogger. It was possible to apply different irrigation levels to each of three sets of four random lysimeters. Evapotranspiration (ET) was calculated using a conservation of water equation, with differences between irrigation inputs and drainage outputs corrected for changes in soil-water content. ET ranged between 3.3 and 10.7 liters/tree per day in well-watered, noncropped trees in late Summer and Fall 1990. These rates correspond to ET of 0.13 to 0.43 liter·cm-2·day-1 and 0.96 to 3.10 liters·m-2·day-1 on trunk cross-sectional area and canopy area bases, respectively. The correlation coefficient between ET and Class A pan evaporation was >0.9 during this period. Weekly crop coefficients for the well-watered trees averaged 0.52 when calculated on a canopy-area basis. When irrigation was withheld for 18 days, the crop coefficient declined to 0.38. There were no differences in ET between trees growing in the two soil profiles, despite significant differences in soil water distribution.
A. Richard Renquist, Horst W. Caspari, M. Hossein Behboudian, and David J. Chalmers
Stomatal conductance (g s) of `Hosui' Asian pear (Pyrus serotina Rehder) trees growing in lysimeters was characterized for trees in well-watered soil and after brief water deficit. The measures of water status used to interpret g s data were soil-water content, leaf water potential (ψl), and instantaneous water use (trunk sap flow by the compensation heat-pulse technique). The diurnal course and range of g s values of well-irrigated Asian pear trees were similar to those reported for other tree fruit crops. Soil moisture at the end of a midsummer deficit period was 60% of lysimeter pot capacity, and diurnal ψl reflected this deficit predawn and in the late afternoon compared to well-irrigated trees. The g s was sensitive to deficit irrigation during more of the day than ψl, with g s values <3 mm·s-1 for most of the day; these were less than half the conductances of well-irrigated trees. The reduction of g s in response to a given soil-water deficit was not as great on days with lower evaporative demand. After a water deficit, g s recovered to predeficit values only gradually over 2 to 3 days. The low g s of trees in dry soil was the apparent cause of reduced transpiration, measured by trunk sap flow, and reduced responsiveness of sap flow to fluctuations in net radiation.