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Shiow Y. Wang, Hong J. Jiao, and Miklos Faust

The activity of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH), 6-phosphate gluconate dehydrogenase (6PGDH), isocitrate dehydrogenase (ICDH), pyruvate kinase (PK), and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) were studied in apple (Malus domestics Borkh.) buds during dormancy and thidiazuron-induced budbreak. When buds were dormant, the activity of the glycolytic enzymes GAPDH and PK and the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle enzyme ICDH was low compared to that in nondormant buds. The activity of these enzymes increased during budbreak, peaked when buds were in the green tip stage just before the start of rapid expansion (at 8 days after thidiazuron treatment), and declined thereafter. The activity of pentose-phosphate cycle enzymes G6PDH and 6PGDH was higher in dormant buds than in nondormant buds. 6PGDH was about twice as high as G6PDH. During budbreak and resumption of growth, G6PDH and 6PGDH activity decreased.

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Shiow Y. Wang, Miklos Faust, and Hong J. Jiao

The effects of thidiazuron on changes in superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in apple (Malus domestica Borkh cv. York Imperial) buds during dormancy break were determined. Dormant buds had low SOD activity. Increased SOD activity was correlated with budbreak induced by thidiazuron. Buds contained three distinct forms of SOD: Cu, Zn-SOD; Mn-SOD; and Fe-SOD. Most of the SOD activity in apple buds was attributed to Cu and Zn-SOD, followed by Mn-SOD. Iron-SOD was not present in dormant buds, and only a trace amount was found as buds started rapid expansion. Chemical name used: N-phenyl-N′-1,2,3,-thidiazol-5-ylurea (thidiazuron).