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  • Author or Editor: Hitoshi Ohara x
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The effects of ammonium nitrate (AMN) on the penetration of Gibberellin A3 (GA3) into berries of `Kyoho' (Vitis labruscana Bailey) grape during berry development were studied. Treatment solutions of GA3 (100 ng·μL-1) and GA3 + AMN (20 millimolar concentration) were applied to the surface of grape berries under field conditions. The amount of GA3 penetrated was assayed using dwarf rice (Oryza sativa L., cv. Tan-ginbozu). At full bloom, the addition of AMN significantly enhanced GA3 penetration 24, 48 ad 72 hours after application by 13%, 16% and 21% of the applied GA3, respectively, representing a 1.7- to 2.4-fold increase over GA3 alone. At 4 weeks after full bloom (WAFB) at 24 hours after application, 20% of the applied GA3 penetrated in the presence of AMN compared to 15% in the absence of AMN. From varaison (7 WAFB) to maturity (10 WAFB), GA3 penetration decreased, from 6% to 2%, respectively, in the presence of AMN, and from 3% to 1% in the absence of AMN. The addition of AMN to the GA3 solution increased GA3 penetration relative to GA3 alone at all berry developmental stages. On the other hand, Cuticular wax density on the berry surface at 4 WAFB was 1.10 μg·mm-2, 5.8-fold greater than at full bloom (0.19 μg·mm-2). The thickness of the epidermal tissue doubled during the first 2 WAFB, but was maintained almost constant over the next 6 weeks. GA3 penetration was more closely related to the cuticular wax levels than the epidermal tissue thickness.

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Changes of endogenous 9, 10-ketol-octadecadienoic acid (KODA) concentrations, which is synthesized from linolenic acid by 9-lipoxygenase, were analyzed in apple [Malus ×sylvestris (L.) Mill. var. domestica (Borkh.) Mansf.] buds. In addition, the effects of 15, 16-chloro, hydroxy-9-hydroxy-10-oxo-12(Z)-octadecenoic acid (CKODA) application, which is an analog of KODA, on flower bud formation and the expression of MdTFL1 (terminal flower 1) and MdFT1 (flowering locus t 1) genes in apple buds were investigated in heavy-crop treatment (HCT) and under shade. An increase of endogenous KODA in the buds in the fruit-thinning treatment, which resulted in a higher proportion of flower bud formation than in HCT, was observed at 63 days after full bloom, but no such increase was found in HCT. In the shade-treated and heavy-crop trees, the expression of MdTFL1 in the buds to which CKODA was applied was lower than that in untreated buds. In contrast, under shade, the expression of MdFT1 in the CKODA-treated buds was higher than that in untreated buds. These results suggest that endogenous KODA may be associated with flower bud formation, and its application may be effective at improving the proportion of flower bud formation through its effect on MdTFL1 and MdFT1.

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