Three individuals in progeny from each of 39 crosses and their parents in Japanese persimmon (Diospyros kaki Thunb.) were evaluated for fruit ripening time. Analysis of variance for the progeny, which estimated between- and within-cross variance, and the regression of the mean value in a full-sib family on the mid-parental value (MP) revealed that the genetic differences among crosses could be explained solely by MP. Genotypic values of individuals in progeny from a cross were assumed to be normally distributed around the regression line with within-cross genetic variance. Based on the parental mean performance of 3.5 fruit on a single tree for three years, the coefficient of regression of mean values in a full-sib family on MP was 0.99 ± 0.10, and the proportion of individuals in progeny having genotypic values ripening earlier than early October was estimated as 52%, 24%, and 7% for three sets of mid-parents differing in their ripening time, i.e., early, middle, and late October, respectively. On the basis of the parental mean performance in 10 fruit on a single tree without yearly repetition, the regression coefficient was estimated as 0.91 and the proportion was estimated as 44%, 20%, and 6% for the three sets of mid-parents, respectively.
Masahiko Yamada, Hiroyasu Yamane, and Yastio Ukai
Hiroshi Iwanami, Nobuyuki Hirakawa, Hiroyasu Yamane, and Akihiko Sato
Crosses between seedless cultivars had been conducted to produce seedless table grape efficiently by combining with ovule and embryo culture in Vitis vinifera L. But very few plants grew normally in this method. Four plant growth regulators (Cycocel, B-Nine, Uniconazole-P, Ethrel) were applied to shoots 4 weeks before anthesis to develop the seeds of two seedless cultivars `Flame seedless' and `A1706'. Correlation was significant in each cultivar between the shoot length at anthesis and the number of seed traces per berry in all combined treatments. Analysis of covariance revealed that the number of seed traces per berry was significantly higher when the shoots were applied with Uniconazole-P (240 ppm) than B-nine (2000 ppm), Cycocel (500 ppm) and Ethrel (400 ppm) in `Flame seedless' and Uniconazole-P and B-nine than Ethrel in `A1706'. Ovules of these two seedless cultivars crossed with seedless cultivar `Perlette' after the application of four plant growth regulators were cultured on half-strength MS medium with 10 μm IAA and the percentage of developed embryos in ovules was higher when the shoots were applied with Uniconazole-P and B-nine than Cycocel, Ethrel in `Flame seedless' and B-nine than others in `A1706'. These results indicate that the use of certain plant growth regulators promotes the embryo development.