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  • Author or Editor: Hiroshi Wada x
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Two cultivars of tulip (Tulipa gesneriana L.) were used to check the effect of trehalose-feeding on longevity of vase life. `Oxford' plants were grown from bulbs, and trehalose-fed cut flowers were compared with the intact plants grown in pots. `Pink Diamond' flowers were obtained commercially as cut flowers from the market, and trehalose-feeding was examined by using only flower parts. In both cultivars of plants, it was confirmed that trehalose-feeding enhanced longevity of the vase life significantly at room temperature. Additionally, mechanisms of prolonging the vase life with trehalose-fed flowers were studied by comparing the water status in the zone of elongation of tulip tepals when their growth rates were modified with different treatments. In the elongating region of tulip tepals, cell elongation rates were linearly correlated to sizes of the growth-induced water potential regardless of treatments. It was found that trehalose-feeding reduced the hydraulic conductance, resulting in a decrease in cell elongation rates. Also, trehalose helped to maintain turgor of tepal cells for longer periods. Furthermore, trehalose enhanced pigmentation in tepals, and thus, trehalose is believed to have had a role in altering the metabolism in elongating cells and in reducing hydraulic conductivity in membranes.

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The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of temperature treatments on anthocyanin accumulation and ethylene production in the fruit of early- and medium-maturing cultivars that were harvested early during fruit ripening. We first investigated the effects of various temperature treatments on anthocyanin accumulation in detached apples of ‘Tsugaru’, ‘Tsugaru Hime’, ‘Akane’ and ‘Akibae’ using an incubator. Three years of experiments demonstrated that at harvest, the lower-temperature treatments induced anthocyanin accumulation in ‘Tsugaru’, ‘Tsugaru Hime’, and ‘Akibae’ fruits, whereas the increases in anthocyanin accumulation under the 25 °C treatment were similar to those under the 15 and 20 °C treatments in ‘Akane’ fruit. The rate of ethylene production did not increase substantially during the temperature treatments in any of the four cultivars, except after the treatments of ‘Tsugaru’ fruit at harvest. The inhibition of ethylene action by the application of 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) to detached fruits at harvest suppressed anthocyanin development under 15 and 20 °C temperature treatments in ‘Tsugaru’, ‘Tsugaru Hime’, and ‘Akibae’, but not in ‘Akane’. In the second experiment, we investigated changes in the anthocyanin concentration in attached fruit of ‘Misuzu Tsugaru’ under different temperature conditions in a greenhouse. At harvest, the anthocyanin concentration in fruit under the hotter climatic condition (29 °C 12 hours/19 °C 12 hours) was lower than that under the control condition (25 °C 12 hours/15 °C 12 hours). During the last week before harvest, anthocyanin development proceeded rapidly in fruit skin not only under the control condition, but also under the hotter climatic condition. The rapid accumulation of anthocyanin in the fruit skin of ‘Misuzu Tsugaru’ at harvest under a relatively high temperature (25 °C) condition was confirmed by the experiment using an incubator. At harvest, the maximum level of ethylene production in fruits sampled from trees grown under the hotter climatic condition was 9-fold higher than that in fruits from trees grown under the control condition. These results indicate that the comparison of pigmentation potential after the 15 or 25 °C treatments using detached fruit was effective for estimating anthocyanin accumulation in fruit skins under hotter climatic conditions in early- and medium-maturing cultivars that were harvested early and that a hotter climatic condition during ripening increased ethylene production in apple fruit after harvest.

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