Fogging systems are still not widely used for greenhouse cooling, primarily due to their low fog: evaporation ratio, resulting in a low cooling efficiency and a high risk of pathogen expansion caused by excess wetness of plant foliage. The fogging is operated intermittently because of these problems. Consequently, the air temperature and relative humidity fluctuates inside the greenhouse. If nozzles with a high fog: evaporation ratio are employed, the fogging can be operated continuously. By continuous fogging, steady air temperature and relative humidity can be achieved inside the greenhouse. In our previous study under indoor conditions, a high fog: evaporation ratio was achieved by installing two small fans close to a conventional upright nozzle in order to obtain an upward air stream. The objective of this study was to draw a comparison between the environmental conditions inside a greenhouse with the continuous fogging with small fans and that with the conventional intermittent fogging without fans. Reduced fluctuation of the air temperature and relative humidity inside the greenhouse were observed in the case of continuous fogging as compared with that observed in the case of intermittent fogging. The air temperature inside the greenhouse during cooling was lower than that before cooling in both methods. In the case of continuous fogging, the adjustment of the amount of fogged water will provide the desired environmental conditions inside the greenhouse.
Hiromi Toida, Toyoki Kozai, Handarto, and Katsumi Ohyama
Hiromi Toida, Katsumi Ohyama, Yoshitaka Omura, and Toyoki Kozai
The light and dark periods can be easily controlled by the use of artificial lighting. To understand the effects of alternation of light and dark periods on plant growth and development, we studied the growth and development of tomato (`Momotaro') seedlings under nonperiodic alternation of light and dark periods. Tomato seedlings grown under two nonperiodic alternation treatments of NF (NF-1 and NF-2) were compared with seedlings grown under a periodic alternation treatment (P treatment) with 12-hour light and dark periods. In all treatments, photosynthetic photon flux (PPF) during the light period was maintained at 280 μmol·m-2·s-1; the sum of each light period and the following dark period was 24 hours; and each of the integrated light and dark periods was 132 hours during 11 days of the experiment. In NF-1, the initial light and dark periods were 7 and 17 hours, respectively, and the light period was extended 1 hour per day, while in NF-2, they were initially 17 and 7 hours, respectively, and the light period was shortened 1 hour per day. At the end of the experiment, dry weight per seedling was greater and flower-bud initiation of the first flower truss was earlier in NF-1 than in NF-2 and P, even though the integrated PPF during the experiment was the same in all treatments. These results demonstrate that growth and development of tomato seedlings can be enhanced without any increase in electric energy consumption for lighting by gradually extending the light period or shortening the dark period.