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- Author or Editor: Hideyuki Tanaka x
Mature seeds of Ilex species usually contain immature embryos and are extremely difficult to germinate. Ilex latifolia and I. rotunda, two species that are grown as ornamentals, also produce seeds that are difficult to germinate. In the present study, we investigated some factors affecting seed germination in those species. Although seeds of I. latifolia and I. rotunda could imbibe water, they did not germinate. When embryos were cultured in vitro, germination was observed in I. latifolia but not in I. rotunda. Interestingly, a transient decrease in germination frequency occurred in I. latifolia embryos isolated from seeds collected in September or October. Among five types of I. latifolia seeds that differed in the presence of the endocarp, testa, and endosperm, germinability of isolated embryos was highest. Good germination was also observed in quarter-seeds with or without endocarp followed by half-seeds. Treatment of seeds with sodium hydroxide (NaOH) had no effect on seed germination in I. latifolia. Cold stratification at 5 °C increased the germination frequency of I. latifolia embryos. In conclusion, the data suggested a mechanical barrier by the endocarp and inhibitors contained in the endosperm, testa, and/or endocarp inhibited seed germination in I. latifolia. Although no seeds or embryos of I. rotunda germinated, cold stratification in combination with other treatments deserves further investigation. Chemical name: sodium hydroxide (NaOH).
Adventitious shoots can be regenerated from the cut surface of the primary shoot and lateral branches in decapitated plants in vivo. This inherent regenerative ability of plants is useful for mass propagation. In the present study, we conducted histological observations of shoot regeneration and applied auxin and cytokinin to decapitated seedlings in four tomato cultivars. The cultivars produced different numbers of adventitious shoots after decapitation; ‘Petit’ produced the largest number of adventitious shoots (78.5 ± 10.2) and ‘Momotaro’ produced the fewest (12.1 ± 3.3). Histological observation of ‘Petit’ revealed that adventitious shoots regenerated from calli formed at the cut surface of stems. Adventitious shoot formation was inhibited by the presence of lateral branches. Shoot regeneration was prevented by application of 1-naphthaleneacetic acid to ‘Petit’. Application of 6-benzyladenine promoted shoot regeneration in ‘Momotaro’. These results suggest auxin synthesized de novo from the lateral branches inhibited shoot regeneration after decapitation and endogenous cytokinin might stimulate shoot regeneration. Chemical names: 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA); 6-benzyladenine (BA)
There is concern that high temperatures resulting from global warming could reduce fruit set of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). However, fruit set of parthenocarpic tomato genotypes, which often bears seedless fruit, is not reduced when grown under a high temperature. The cause of seedless fruit development was studied with the aim of increasing the seed number in parthenocarpic tomato. Ovule number at anthesis in parthenocarpic and non-parthenocarpic fruit did not differ, but the proportion of undeveloped ovules increased with time after anthesis in parthenocarpic tomato, whereas most ovules in non-parthenocarpic tomato developed normally. Pollen grains germinated on the stigma and extruded pollen tubes in parthenocarpic and non-parthenocarpic tomatoes, but in parthenocarpic tomato, pollen tube elongation was markedly inhibited in the style base. Elongation of pollen tubes on agar containing indoleacetic acid (IAA) was depressed in parthenocarpic and non-parthenocarpic tomato plants. p-Chlorophenoxyisobutyric acid (PCIB), which inhibits auxin action, did not affect the fruit set and fresh weight in either type of tomato, although seed number per fruit in parthenocarpic tomato was significantly increased from 13 ± 2 to 74 ± 6 seeds by PCIB treatment. These results indicated that a high IAA concentration in the ovary of parthenocarpic tomato inhibited pollen tube elongation, and that poor fertilization resulted in failure of ovule development. Moreover, floral organs in parthenocarpic tomato were normally developed as in non-parthenocarpic tomato, and seed development could be induced in parthenocarpic tomato by PCIB treatment.