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- Author or Editor: Henry M. Munger x
Fruits and vegetables are being recommended more strongly than ever for improving human health, but, in some parts of the world, supplies are inadequate and, even when supplies are abundant, some segments of the population eat far less then recommended amounts. This divergence suggests that careful analysis and multiple approaches are needed to maximize the benefits of horticultural crops to human health. Information about the specific health benefits of certain crops and the value of diversity in the diet to get benefits not yet understood may stimulate increased usage. An attractive, appetizing, and economical supply seems essential, and may require efforts ranging from breeding for resistance, flavor, appearance, and holdability, through production and harvesting methods, to postharvest handling and processing.
The following statements were written in the hope of expediting discussion at the session in Davis, California on August 18, 1968 on “Plant Patents and Alternate Methods of Breeder Protection.” All except 5(e) were distributed to the four panel members in advance of the meeting. Three indicated their agreement with them and the fourth offered no dissent. Copies were distributed at the meeting and while no vote was taken, there appeared to be general agreement on the statements. In addition, several spoke in favor of, and none against, adding an additional point which is listed here as 5(e).
Stevens (4) has given a recent and thorough review of cultivar influence on nutritive value in fresh fruits and vegetables. Differences described in his paper indicate that there is great potential in breeding for nutritional value. The largest body of information is with respect to vitamins. Here it is not uncommon for one cultivar to have twice the vitamin concentration of another, and occasional differences may be much greater. Minerals and protein apparently vary to a lesser degree than vitamins, and less is known about cultivars which are consistently high or low in these nutrients. Nevertheless, there is a real potential for developing cultivars that have higher percentage composition of minerals and proteins as well as of vitamins.
Cumulative marketable yield patterns for the determinant, sp, indeterminate, sp +, jointless, j, and dwarf, d plants were compared at spacings of 6′ × 1.5′ and 6′ × 0.5′, and in 3 varietal backgrounds, ‘Fireball’, ‘Gardener’, and ‘Cornell 54–149’, into which these alleles were previously backcrossed. Determinate vines maintained a superior yield throughout the first 4 weeks of harvest, but in the last week of harvest, determinate and indeterminate vines had accumulated equal yields. Dwarf and jointless vines yielded less than determinate and indeterminate vines throughout the harvest period. Jointless vines finally produced a higher yield than dwarf vines on the last harvest date. Determinate vines responded to closer spacing with a higher yield increase than plants of the other growth habits primarily in the first 3 weeks of harvest.
Different growth habits in the same genetic background were produced by backcross programs to obtain determinate, sp, indeterminate, sp +, jointless, j, and dwarf, d, forms of each of 3 varieties, ‘Gardener,’ ‘Fireball,’ and ‘Cornell 54-149.’ Compared at 2 spacings, 6 × 1.5 ft and 6 × 0.5 ft, indeterminate and jointless plants had larger fruit and higher soluble solids than determinate plants in all varietal backgrounds and at both spacings. The magnitude of the differences varied with varietal background. Dwarf plants produced smaller fruit than non-dwarf plants but with no difference in soluble solids. Closer plant spacings within the row resulted in both smaller size and decreased soluble solids of fruit.
Temperature and photoperiod affected time of flowering in ‘Red Kidney’ and ‘Great Northern UI 1’ varieties of dry beans. ‘Great Northern-1’ was delayed in flowering under 18-hr photoperiod and the low temperature of 60°F night and 70° day. However, at higher temperatures it flowered normally under all photoperiods. ‘Red Kidney’ on the other hand was delayed under 18-hr photoperiod and high temperatures, above 85° day and night temperatures 70° or higher. It was relatively insensitive to photoperiod under the low temperature, and under the medium temperature of 70° night and 80° day.
Studies of the flowering response of parental and hybrid populations under 18-hr photoperiod and the high, medium and low temperature conditions indicated that ‘Red Kidney’ and ‘Great Northern-1’ differ by 2 major temperature-sensitive genes. ‘Red Kidney’ has a dominant gene Ht which causes delayed flowering at temperatures above 85° and long photoperiod while ‘Great Northern-1’ has a dominant gene Lt which causes delayed flowering at temperatures below 75° and long photoperiod. The F1 Htht Ltlt is delayed at all temperatures under long photoperiod.
Anatomical studies indicated that flower initiation had occurred under all photoperiod and temperature conditions but further development of floral primordia into flowers was delayed or completely inhibited under the conditions responsible for delay.
`Hannah's Choice F1' is a new, high quality eastern type muskmelon (Cucumis melo L.) with multiple disease resistance. It was developed in the Department of Plant Breeding at the Cornell University Agricultural Experiment Station in Ithaca, N.Y. It is well adapted for northeastern U.S. conditions and shows potential for good adaptation in the northwest. With multiple disease resistance it is well suited for home gardeners, market gardeners, and commercial growers. `Hannah's Choice F1' has excellent resistance to powdery mildew races 1 and 2 (Podosphaera xanthi) and some tolerance to Fusarium root rot (Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis) race 2. In addition, it has resistance to watermelon mosaic virus (WMV), papaya ringspot virus (PRSV), and zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV). This is the first commercial melon to have combined resistance to these three potyviruses. Also, it has shown some field tolerance to spider mites (Tetranychus urticae). Lastly, it has shown some field tolerance to downy mildew (Pseudoperonospora cubensis), angular leaf spot (Pseudomonas syringae pv. lachrymans), and gummy stem blight (Didymella bryoniae). In 2001, 2002, and 2003 it was grown in replicated trials in New York and in 2002 and 2003 in Oregon.
`PMR Delicious 51' is a new and improved version of the `Delicious 51' eastern type melon (Cucumis melo L.). It was developed in the Department of Plant Breeding at the Cornell University Agricultural Experiment Station in Ithaca, N.Y. It is well adapted for northeastern U.S. conditions and shows potential for good adaptation in the northwest. It is well suited for home gardeners, market gardeners, and commercial growers who want to grow an open-pollinated (OP) melon. `PMR Delicious 51' has excellent resistance to powdery mildew races 1 and 2 (Podosphaera xanthi) and resistance to fusarium wilt (Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis) race 2.
Plants to be screened for resistance to mechanically transmitted viruses can be inoculated by using an inexpensive electric-powered leaf blower. This device greatly reduces the amount of time to inoculate large populations when compared with hand-rubbing methods. No significant differences were noted with regard to the frequency of seedlings that escaped infection.