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- Author or Editor: Helen C. Harrison x
The Master Gardener Program in the state of Wisconsin is growing rapidly and has been in existence since the late 1970s. There are several aspects of our program(s) that make us unique. First, we are one of the very few states to service all counties within the state, not just our heavily metropolitan areas. Second, we have two major program types along with some unique county programming. We have the basic Master Gardener Program, which covers the major aspects of horticulture—this gives the learner 36 h of training with an expectation of 36 h of volunteer work in return. We now offer the general program in districts (extension has six clusters of counties in Wisconsin)—such that the counties within a district (usually around 16) will have the chance to offer the course at least once every 3 years. That is because the general course is offered once a week (3 h in the evening) for 12 weeks; and thus the basic course is offer spring and fall. If some of the counties within a particular district do not choose to participate, then other counties around the state can take part. Most of the 12 programs are high quality 2-h video productions followed by a 1-h ETN program, which is like a big conference call—everyone has an interactive session with the specialist who developed the video. The specialized program is a series of four 36-h (six 6-h days) training over a 4-year period, which covers flowers, fruit, vegetables, and turf, along with trees and shrubs. This program is offered in our four largest metropolitan areas and is still done all by live lecture. Finally, we require update training for our MGs if they want to continue to be members in good standing (wallet-size cards are issued). This involves 10 h of specified educational opportunities and 10 volunteer hours per year. We also have a day-long educational conference each spring as well as cooperating with Iowa and Minnesota to offer a 2-1/2 day workshop on the alternating years of the international conference. This is hands-on training, held usually the end of June, and rotates among the three states. We now have a stong MG association which has nonprofit status and is an integral partner with us here at the university. Not only do MGs receive members in good standing cards annually, they also receive certificates for 150, 250, 500, 750, and 1000 h of service as well as a 10-year certificate.
This 1988–1990 field study was designed to: evaluate the effectiveness of wide width floating row covers (covers remained over the crops the entire growing season), polyethylene mulch, and mulch color--red, green, and black--on the growth, yield, quality, insect, and weed control for red (`Red Danish') and green (`Resistant Danish') cabbage cultivars. Insect control treatments included Agronet floating row covers, periodic sprays with dipel, and no insect control. Subplots for weed control were: PPI Treflan and black, green, and red polyethylene mulch. Sub–subplots were red and green cabbage cultivars. Annual rye grass was utilized as a living mulch between the polyethene strips.
One of the purposes of this research was to perfect a pesticide-free system for small-scale vegetable production. Preliminary results indicate few color effects but do show that cabbage can be grown under row covers the entire growing season. However, the covers can become brittle after 2 months of exposure to sunlight. Significant cultivar differences for insect and disease resistance were observed.
A 2-year carrot (Daucus carota L.) nutrition experiment involving 3 sludge treatments, 3 bed types, and 3 advanced hybrid carrot selections was conducted on a silt loam in Arlington, Wis., to determine the influence of these variables on growth and elemental concentration levels in edible, mature carrot roots. Sludge treatments included a 90 MT/ha/year application of municipal or industrial sludge plus a control with no sludge application. When significant differences occurred, highest yields and elemental concentration levels in edible roots occurred with hybrids grown in municipal sludge-amended soils. Root Cd levels in 1982 were the only exception, being greatest in plants grown on industrial sludge-amended soils. Lowest yields and highest heavy metal concentrations in the edible root were found in carrots grown on overcover beds (15-cm raised bed of unamended topsoil over prepared level or flat bed) as compared to those grown on 15-cm raised beds or level beds. Hybrid carrot selection (B6373 × B6345) × B6274 (B) accumulated less heavy metals in its edible root tissue than did B4367 × B6274 (A) or (B34602 × B3316) × F524 (C).
Using Native Plants is a 120-min videotape that was developed as a result of a Cooperative Extension Partnership Programming Grant between the Univ. of Minnesota, Minnesota Extension Service and the Cooperative Extension–Univ. of Wisconsin-Extension. The content covers woodland wildflowers, prairie establishment and maintenance, landscaping lakeshores, and using native plants in traditional gardens settings.Video segments include: Eloise Butler Wildflower garden, Minneapolis, Minn.; Curtis Prairie, Madison, Wis.; Big Sandy Lake, Minn.; and the Minnesota Landscape Arboretum, Chanhassen. Developed originally as advanced Master Gardener training, the program was a national satellite broadcast on 29 Feb. 1996. It was viewed by at least nine states and more than 500 participants. Video production costs, including a 20-page participant's handout with extensive references and plant lists, were just under $13,000. A cost analysis, evaluation, sample of the participant's packet, pictures from the videotape and an order form will be presented. Copies of the tape and print packet may be obtained for $50 from Minnesota Extension Service, 1.800.876.8636, or Univ. of Wisconsin-Extension, at 1.608.262.3346.
Renewed interest in soil conservation over the past decade has led to greater research efforts in the area of living mulch cropping systems. However, crop/mulch competition continues to present challenges. The objective of this study was to determine what effect two types of chemical growth suppressants (Mycogen 6121—an herbicidal soap, and Royal Slo-grow—a soil plant growth regulator) had on the water-use efficiency, nutrient use, and soil-shading ability of two annual living mulches, ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) and crimson clover (Trifolium incarnatum). Two greenhouse experiments were performed in sand culture using a modified Hoagland's soap, one rate of growth regulator, and a mechanical treatment of mowing. Significant differences in nutrient use and soil-shading ability were obtained. The second experiment (69 days) replicated the ryegrass treatments less one rate of soap and included the legume crimson clover with one rate of soap and one rate of growth regulator. Results from both experiments will be discussed.
Parasitic flowering plants represent a unique ecological adaptation, having evolved away from independent function and toward an increasing dependence on other higher plants for survival. Mistletoe, a common evergreen parasite of woody plants, has played a significant role in human culture for centuries. Throughout history, mistletoe species were nurtured and revered as medicinal herbs and religious symbols. But the role of mistletoe has changed. Its importance in western culture has dwindled to a minor, though enduring, association with the Christmas holiday. In contrast, its significance as a parasite of tree crops and woody ornamentals has increased in recent years. Mistletoe species are studied in efforts to control their pathogenic effects and to gain insight into the evolutionary role played by this family of parasitic flowering plants. The unique characteristics of mistletoe that challenge horticultural researchers have contributed to its enduring role in human life.
The identification of exceptional genotypes in a breeding program can involve evaluating the responses of large numbers of plants to environmental stress (2). Major hydroponic systems include aerated standing or flowing-nutrient solution, mist, and nutrient film cultures. Flowing solution culture currently provides the most consistent environment for roots, but it is costly and difficult to maintain (1, 3).
Parental, F1, F2, and F3 generations were used to determine the inheritance of Cd concentration in lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.). Three plant introductions—PI 278080, PI 140398, and PI 169493—were parents for two crosses—PI 278080 × PI 140398 and PI 169493 × PI 278080. Data from the F2 and F3 generations did not fit simple Mendelian models. Broad sense heritability estimates for the two crosses, calculated from parental and F2 variances, were 0.38 and 0.29, respectively. Narrow sense estimates, calculated by the standard-unit regression analyses of F3 family means on F2 parents, were 0.05 and 0.30, respectively. Low, nonsignificant correlations were obtained between Cd concentration and dry weight of tissue samples in both F2 and F3 generations, indicating that selection for low concentration should not affect yield.
Three cucumber hybrids (Cucumis sativus ‘County Fair’, ‘Calypso’, and ‘Southern Belle’) were grown in order to determine the effects of sludge application, bed type, and genotype on elemental concentration in edible plant tissue, vegetative growth, and crop yield. Actual and available soil elemental levels and soil temperature were recorded. Plants were grown in replicated field plots of silt loam amended with 90 MT/ha/year of industrial or municipal sludge and a control with no sludge application. Three bed types were used — level or flat bed, 15-cm raised bed, and 15-cm raised bed of unamended topsoil over prepared flat bed (overcover bed). Sludge and bed type had no effect on soil temperature. Highest yields were obtained from ‘County Fair’ grown on flat beds amended with municipal sludge. Consistent differences were found among genotypes for elemental accumulation in fruit and peel, with ‘Calypso’ showing the lowest levels for all elements when significant differences occurred. Sludge and bed effects on fruit and peel elemental accumulation were variable among years and elements.
Leaf Cd concentrations were determined for 60 commercial cultivars and USDA plant introductions of noncrisphead lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.). This 2-year study evaluated each genotype in field plots receiving an industrial sludge, a municipal sludge, or no sludge amendment. Genotype and sludge treatment had significant effects on leaf Cd concentration. Although the genotype x year interaction was also significant, the Cd concentrations of some cultivars (‘Waldmann’s Green’ and ‘Summer Queen’) were consistently low while others (PI 278080, PI 167148, and ‘Citation’) were consistently high. Plots amended with the industrial sludge had the highest total and available Cd levels, and plants grown on these plots had the highest leaf Cd concentrations, ranging from 3.1 to 11.9 μg·g−1. Leaf Cd concentrations from plants grown on the municipal sludge-amended plots ranged from 1.4 to 5.5 μg·g−1 and from 1.2 to 2.5 μg·g−1 for the control plots.