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  • Author or Editor: Harry K. Tayama x
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Residual activity of a single uniconazole spray (15 mg a.i./liter), uniconazole drench (600 μg a.i./pot), and daminozide spray (5000 mg a.i./liter) were compared to an untreated control using the `Bright Golden Anne' chrysanthemum [Dendranthema grandiflorum (Ramat.) Kitamura]. Based on weekly internode growth, spray and drench treatments with daminozide and uniconazole remained active for 2 to 2.5 and 3 to 3.5 weeks, respectively. Chemical names used: butanedioic acid mono (2,2-dimethylhydrazide) (daminozide); (E)-1-(p-chlorophenyl)-4,4-diemethyl 1-2(1,2,4-triazol-2-yl)-l-penten-3-01 (uniconazole).

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Uniconazole spray or drench applications to `Yours Truly' zonal geranium (Pelargonium × hortorum L.H. Bailey) and `Bright Golden Anne' and Yellow Favor' chrysanthemums [Dendranthema ×grandiflorum (Ramat.) Kitamura] were made to evaluate efficacy and identify optimum application concentrations. Spray applications at 10 mg a.i./liter retarded stem elongation in unpinched zonal geranium comparable to chlormequat at 1500 mg a.i./liter. `Bright Golden Anne' was more sensitive to uniconazole than `Yellow Favor'. Uniconazole spray concentrations of 20 to 30 mg a.i./liter retarded plant height equal to daminozide at 5000 mg a.i./liter. Chemical names used: 2-chloro-N,N,N-trimethylethanaminium chloride (chlormequat); butanedioic acid mono (2,2-dimethylhydrazide) (daminozide); (E)-(S)-1-(4-chlorophenyl)-4,4-dimethyl-2-(1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)-pent-1-ene-3-ol (uniconazole).

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The influence of poinsettia (Euphorbia pulcherrima Wild. ex Klotzsch) stock plant shoot maturity on subsequent splitting of cuttings taken from the shoots was evaluated. Terminal cuttings (7.5 cm) taken from `Lilo' poinsettia stock plant axillary shoots that had 4, 8, or 12 nodes were rooted, planted, then observed for initial signs of splitting (conversion of the vegetative terminal buds into floral buds). The percentages of cuttings that split were 22, 77, and 100 for those taken from shoots with 4, 8, and 12 nodes, respectively. By implication, cuttings should be taken just as stock plant axillaries reach a size adequate for propagation to help reduce the incidence of splitting.

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A series of crop-specific, resin-coated, controlled-release fertilizer formulations, including: Sierra Geranium Mix 13-12-11 Plus Minors, Sierra Chrysanthemum Mix 12-10-17 Plus Minors, and Sierra Poinsettia Mix 12-12-15 Plus Minors were preplant-incorporated into Metro Mix 350 growing medium for the production of potted zonal geraniums, chrysanthemum, and poinsettia. Plant growth and foliar nutritional responses were compared to those obtained from plants produced with a standard resin-coated, controlled-release Osmocote formulation (19N-6P-12K), water-soluble Peters 20N-10P-20K, and a combination of water-soluble and resin-coated treatments. Crops produced with specialty resin-coated mixes (at recommended rate = l×) were equal in growth and flowering characteristics to those produced with Osmocote (1×), water-soluble (200 ppm nitrogen), or a combination of water-soluble (200 ppm nitrogen) and resin-coated (0.5×) fertilizer treatments. Foliar analyses revealed elemental concentrations in resin-coated fertilizer-treated plants were below those in water-soluble or combination treatments, but were within a range to support satisfactory quality crop production.

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Dendranthema grandiflora Tzvelev., `Spirit' and `Torch' were produced under three water-soluble fertilizer (WSF) and one controlled-release fertilizer (CRF) regimes, with or without weekly CaCl2 sprays during the last three weeks of production to evaluate their influence on postproduction foliar longevity. Foliage of plants produced with 400 mg·liter–1 N (Peter's 20N-4.4P-16.6K) declined 1 to 2 weeks earlier than those produced with 400 mg·liter–1 N (Hydrosol + NH4 NO3), and 3.5 to 5 weeks before plants fertilized with 100 mg·liter–1 N (Hydro-sol + urea + NH4 N03) or 1 kg N·meter–3 growing medium (Osmocote 14N–6.2P–11.6K). Calcium chloride had no influence on foliar longevity. Plants receiving either 400 mg·liter–1 N treatment were generally larger (plant height and diameter), fuller (total and average leaf area), more vigorous (leaf dry weight per unit leaf area), and darker green in color (`Spirit' only, chlorophyll content per unit leaf area). Plant receiving WSF treatments had less than 0.5x the root system (dry weight) of CRF plants at harvest. Postproduction foliar longevity was most significantly and consistently correlated with foliar and growing medium nitrogen content. Relationship of postproduction foliar longevity with leaf soluble protein, carbohydrate, and starch content will be presented.

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Two experiments were conducted to compare the efficacy of uniconazole (10-ppm spray and drench), paclobutrazol (15-ppm spray and drench), triapenthenol (132-ppm spray and drench), chlormequat (1500-ppm spray only), ethephon (500-ppm spray only), and chlormequat + daminozide (2500 + 1500 ppm spray only) combination for controlling stem elongation of zonal (cutting) geraniums [Pelargonium hortorum (L.H. Bailey)]. Additionally, the effect of these materials on days to anthesis, inflorescence number, and phytotoxicity was evaluated. Spray applications provided effective height control and did not affect days to anthesis or inflorescence number. Drench applications severely restricted growth and reduced inflorescence number, but did not delay flowering. None of the treatments was phytotoxic. Chemical names used: β-[(4-chlorophenyl)methyl]-α-(1,1-dimethylethyl)-1H-l,2,4-triazole-1-ethanol (paclobutrazol); 2-chloro-N,N,N-trimethylethanaminium chloride (chlormequat); α-cyclopropyl-α-(4-meth-oxyphenyl)-5-pyrimidinemethanol (ancymidol); (2-chloroethyl) phosphoric acid (ethephon); butanedioic acid mono(2,2-dimethylhydrazide) (daminozide); β-(cyclohexylmethylene)-α-(1,1-dimethylethyl)-1H-1,2,4-triazole-1-ethanol (triapenthenol); (E)-1-(p-chlorophenyl)-4,4-diemethyl 1-2(1,2,4-triazol-2-yl)-1-penten-3-o1 (uniconazole).

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Survey analysis of 510 floral product consumers in Ohio supermarkets identified 34 factors that affect floral purchasing. Responses to 106 survey questions were factor-analyzed using a principal component analysis with varimax rotate that yielded 34 independent factors, accounting for 64% of the total variance. Factors were grouped into five major categories: product, consumer, store, use (gift), and use (location) factors. The analysis condensed the domain of consumer floral purchasing issues into fewer factors that represent the most important influences on floral buying decisions. The factors are useful in market segmentation and were used to define five market segments of supermarket-floral customers.

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A profile of consumer groups who purchased floral products from supermarkets was studied with a 106-item questionnaire developed to determine the domain of issues affecting supermarket floral purchases. Thirty-four factors were identified in factor analysis and formed the basis for cluster analysis. Cluster analysis was performed on survey responses to create five homogeneous consumer segments. Demographic data and floral-purchase factors were used to profile market segments and distinguishing elements. Fourteen factors contributed most to the differences between segments, including factors of product assortment, number of purchases, degree of personal use, and package importance. Clusters can be used by supermarket and florist management as potential target markets.

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A survey analysis of retail florists in the Midwestern United States and floral mass marketers, nationally, profiled the level of service provided by their primary floral suppliers on 10 service characteristics. There is substantial variability in service levels provided to retail florists and mass marketers by suppliers. The greatest variability in service levels was for services relative to maintenance of product quality, product availability, communications/order information, product discounts, and product labeling. Retail florists perceived higher levels of service relative to delivery speed and order/delivery reliability than mass marketers. Mass marketers perceived higher levels of service from suppliers relative to communications/order information and product labeling, compared to retail florists. The service profiles provide floral suppliers management information for the development of service programs targeted for specific customer segments.

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