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Virginia Zrebiec and Harry K. Tayama

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Harry K. Tayama and Stephen A. Carver

Residual activity of a single uniconazole spray (15 mg a.i./liter), uniconazole drench (600 μg a.i./pot), and daminozide spray (5000 mg a.i./liter) were compared to an untreated control using the `Bright Golden Anne' chrysanthemum [Dendranthema grandiflorum (Ramat.) Kitamura]. Based on weekly internode growth, spray and drench treatments with daminozide and uniconazole remained active for 2 to 2.5 and 3 to 3.5 weeks, respectively. Chemical names used: butanedioic acid mono (2,2-dimethylhydrazide) (daminozide); (E)-1-(p-chlorophenyl)-4,4-diemethyl 1-2(1,2,4-triazol-2-yl)-l-penten-3-01 (uniconazole).

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Harry K. Tayama and Stephen A. Carver

Uniconazole spray or drench applications to `Yours Truly' zonal geranium (Pelargonium × hortorum L.H. Bailey) and `Bright Golden Anne' and Yellow Favor' chrysanthemums [Dendranthema ×grandiflorum (Ramat.) Kitamura] were made to evaluate efficacy and identify optimum application concentrations. Spray applications at 10 mg a.i./liter retarded stem elongation in unpinched zonal geranium comparable to chlormequat at 1500 mg a.i./liter. `Bright Golden Anne' was more sensitive to uniconazole than `Yellow Favor'. Uniconazole spray concentrations of 20 to 30 mg a.i./liter retarded plant height equal to daminozide at 5000 mg a.i./liter. Chemical names used: 2-chloro-N,N,N-trimethylethanaminium chloride (chlormequat); butanedioic acid mono (2,2-dimethylhydrazide) (daminozide); (E)-(S)-1-(4-chlorophenyl)-4,4-dimethyl-2-(1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)-pent-1-ene-3-ol (uniconazole).

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Stephen A. Carver and Harry K. Tayama

The influence of poinsettia (Euphorbia pulcherrima Wild. ex Klotzsch) stock plant shoot maturity on subsequent splitting of cuttings taken from the shoots was evaluated. Terminal cuttings (7.5 cm) taken from `Lilo' poinsettia stock plant axillary shoots that had 4, 8, or 12 nodes were rooted, planted, then observed for initial signs of splitting (conversion of the vegetative terminal buds into floral buds). The percentages of cuttings that split were 22, 77, and 100 for those taken from shoots with 4, 8, and 12 nodes, respectively. By implication, cuttings should be taken just as stock plant axillaries reach a size adequate for propagation to help reduce the incidence of splitting.

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Harry K. Tayama and Stephen A. Carver

A series of crop-specific, resin-coated, controlled-release fertilizer formulations, including: Sierra Geranium Mix 13-12-11 Plus Minors, Sierra Chrysanthemum Mix 12-10-17 Plus Minors, and Sierra Poinsettia Mix 12-12-15 Plus Minors were preplant-incorporated into Metro Mix 350 growing medium for the production of potted zonal geraniums, chrysanthemum, and poinsettia. Plant growth and foliar nutritional responses were compared to those obtained from plants produced with a standard resin-coated, controlled-release Osmocote formulation (19N-6P-12K), water-soluble Peters 20N-10P-20K, and a combination of water-soluble and resin-coated treatments. Crops produced with specialty resin-coated mixes (at recommended rate = l×) were equal in growth and flowering characteristics to those produced with Osmocote (1×), water-soluble (200 ppm nitrogen), or a combination of water-soluble (200 ppm nitrogen) and resin-coated (0.5×) fertilizer treatments. Foliar analyses revealed elemental concentrations in resin-coated fertilizer-treated plants were below those in water-soluble or combination treatments, but were within a range to support satisfactory quality crop production.

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Bridget K. Behe, Timothy A. Prince, and Harry K. Tayama

Survey analysis of 510 floral product consumers in Ohio supermarkets identified 34 factors that affect floral purchasing. Responses to 106 survey questions were factor-analyzed using a principal component analysis with varimax rotate that yielded 34 independent factors, accounting for 64% of the total variance. Factors were grouped into five major categories: product, consumer, store, use (gift), and use (location) factors. The analysis condensed the domain of consumer floral purchasing issues into fewer factors that represent the most important influences on floral buying decisions. The factors are useful in market segmentation and were used to define five market segments of supermarket-floral customers.

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Bridget K. Behe, Timothy A. Prince, and Harry K. Tayama

A profile of consumer groups who purchased floral products from supermarkets was studied with a 106-item questionnaire developed to determine the domain of issues affecting supermarket floral purchases. Thirty-four factors were identified in factor analysis and formed the basis for cluster analysis. Cluster analysis was performed on survey responses to create five homogeneous consumer segments. Demographic data and floral-purchase factors were used to profile market segments and distinguishing elements. Fourteen factors contributed most to the differences between segments, including factors of product assortment, number of purchases, degree of personal use, and package importance. Clusters can be used by supermarket and florist management as potential target markets.

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Stephen A. Carver, Michael Knee, and Harry K. Tayama

Dendranthema grandiflora `Spirit' and `Iridon' were grown in a 2-factor experimental design consisting of 3 nitrogen rate/source treatments (100 mg/liter N (25% NH4 +}, 400 mg/liter N (25% NH4 +}, and 400 mg/liter N {5% NH4 +}), and 2 fertilizer termination treatments (bud-color and harvest) Evaluation of various production characteristics including plant and flower size, days to flower, leaf number and size, and leaf, shoot, flower and root fresh/dry weight, revealed few significant differences among treatments. High foliar N content in all treatments (ranging from 6.1 to 8.5%) may provide an explanation for the apparent lack of differential treatment production response. However, there were significant treatment differences in floral and foliar postharvest keeping quality. High NH4 + grown plants declined 1-2 weeks sooner than other treatments, and plants fertilized to harvest declined 0.5-1 week sooner than those fertilized to bud color. Root fresh and dry weights measured 2 weeks into postproduction disclosed significant differences between treatments that mirrored foliar and floral longevity. Results of a satellite study in which root and stem hydraulic conductivity, root total soluble carbohydrates, starch, and protein content, and water loss rate during postharvest will be presented.

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Thomas L. Prince, Harry K. Tayama, and John R. Grabner Jr.

A survey analysis of retail florists in the Midwestern United States and floral mass marketers, nationally, profiled the level of service provided by their primary floral suppliers on 10 service characteristics. There is substantial variability in service levels provided to retail florists and mass marketers by suppliers. The greatest variability in service levels was for services relative to maintenance of product quality, product availability, communications/order information, product discounts, and product labeling. Retail florists perceived higher levels of service relative to delivery speed and order/delivery reliability than mass marketers. Mass marketers perceived higher levels of service from suppliers relative to communications/order information and product labeling, compared to retail florists. The service profiles provide floral suppliers management information for the development of service programs targeted for specific customer segments.

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Linda S. Campbell, Timothy A. Prince, and Harry K. Tayama

Uniconazole (Sumagic) drench applications of 1.9, 2.7, and 3.8 mL per plant and spray applications of 10, 20, and 30 ppm resulted in shorter plants and more blasted flower buds compared to control plants. Drench applications also resulted in more chlorotic leaves than controls. Average lily height with Sumagic ranged from 19 to 29 cm after Sumagic drench and spray applications, respectively. Average plant height was 29 and 31 cm for ancymidol spray and drench application, respectively. Bud abortion was 10, 12, and 17% for spray treatments of Sumagic at 10, 20, and 30 ppm, respectively, while ancymidol spray caused no abortion. Bud abortions were 8, 7, and 11% from Sumagic drenches of 1.9, 2.7 and 3.8 mL/plant compared with 0% from ancymidol drenches. Plants drenched with Sumagic exhibited leaf chlorosis on day of bloom of 18, 16 and 16%, respectively, for the three respective rates of application while ancymidol caused 11.8% chlorosis. The number of buds initiated was not affected by the treatments, Further studies should be conducted to determine the effect of lower application rates of Sumagic on Easter lilies.