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- Author or Editor: Harry J. Swartz x
Raspberry cultivars and hybrids were screened for reaction to Verticillium alboatrum Reinke and Berth to determine the mode of inheritance of resistance and to assist in the development of resistant germplasm. Greenhouse-grown seedlings of an incomplete partial diallel of two black, purple, and red raspberry Rubus subgenus Idaeobatus progeny were root-dipped in a mycelial slurry and stem-inoculated with a conidial suspension of V. albo-atrum. Fourteen weeks after the initial inoculation, disease symptoms were observed in the seedlings. Disease symptom severity and percentage of black raspberry parentage in the seedlings were correlated (P ≤ 0.01; r 2 = 0.90). A similar significant (P ≤ 0.05; r 2 = 0.66) linear trend was found with fungus reisolation percentages, although isolation of the fungus from symptomless plants indicates Verticillium tolerance among genotypes in Idaeobatus. These trends, coupled with large significant general combining ability (P ≤ 0.01), suggest primarily additive inheritance of resistance. However, considering noninoculated control scores, the possibility of escapes, and skewing of populations, one may hypothesize a gene-gene model for symptom expression, with partial dominance of resistance alleles.
Tissue culture-propagated (TC) strawberry plants (Fragaria × ananassa Duch.) had a cultivar-dependent shift in susceptibility to Phytophthora fragariae Hickman and Verticillium albo-atrum Reinke and Berthold root-rotting fungi. TC-propagated ‘Tribute’, a resistant cultivar, had a disease reaction similar to that of runner-propagated ‘Tribute’ plants. TC-propagated and juvenile selfed seedlings of ‘Raritan’, a susceptible cultivar, were more susceptible to these diseases than ‘Raritan’ runner plants. The TC plant disease reaction shifted toward the runner plant (or usual clonal) reaction with increasing time out of in vitro culture.
‘Allstar’ is a vigorous and productive Junebearing strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa Duch.) that produces very large, firm fruit of good quality in late midseason. It is the most recent introduction in a series of red stele root rot-resistant cultivars developed in the cooperative strawberry improvement program of the U.S. Department of Agriculture and the University of Maryland. ‘Allstar’ combines multiple-race resistance to red stele incited by Phytopthora fragariae Hickman with resistance to other root and leaf diseases, has unusually broad adaptation within the eastern United States, and performs well under a number of cultural regimes. Its name implies superior performance under diverse soil, climatic and cultural conditions.
‘Tribute’ and ‘Tristar’ are everbearing strawberry cultivars (Fragaria × ananassa Duch.) that fruit in spring, summer, and fall (as indicated by the prefix “Tri-”). They are the first everbearing strawberries bred for culture in the eastern United States which combine resistance to red stele root rot, incited by Phytophthora fragariae Hickman, with a high degree of tolerance to verticillium wilt, incited by Verticillium albo-atrum Reincke & Berth. Their generally consistent good health, productivity, and fruit quality under a number of cultural systems suggest that these cultivars will offer new opportunities to the strawberry home gardener and commercial grower alike.
Ethylene evolution in excised apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) spurs was measured following the application of thinning treatments. Within 1 day (20 hours) of application, ethylene evolution by spurs of ‘Golden Delicious’ trees treated with 15 ppm napthaleneacetic acid (NAA) and 100 ppm (2-chloroethyl)phosphonic acid (ethephon) was 5 times greater than in control spurs, and those treated with 200 ppm ethephon evolved seven times more. Less fruit thinning occurred in response to the application of 100 ppm ethephon than 15 ppm NAA. Increased ethylene evolution was also detected in attached ‘Spatbluhender’ fruitlets 8 hours after NAA treatment.
Vigor, petiole length, stand, runner production, yield per square meter of matted row, and numbers of trusses per crown were greater in tissue culture-produced plants when compared to runner plants of strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa Duch). Leaf area and shape, number of serrations per leaflet, petiole pubescence density, flowers per truss, yield per crown, harvest time, small fruit weight, and percent imperfect fruits did not vary appreciably between propagation methods. Size of large fruit and mean fruit weight were less in tissue culture-produced plants. All changes in performance were caused, at least in part, by the increased vigor and axillary bud activity of tissue culture-produced plants. Tissue culture propagation of strawberry is particularly adapted to production of planting stock for nurseries because 60% more runner plants are produced from tissue culture plants. Production of variant plants from tissue culture was largely limited to 1 meristem-tip line. For certain cultivars, some adjustment of nursery inspection procedures for off-type plants will be required.
Comparative field performance of thornless blackberry plants produced by tissue-culture (TC) and standard (ST) methods (tip layers or stem cuttings) was studied to determine any effect of TC propagation on clonal phenotypic stability. In general, TC plants performed as well as, and were phenotypically similar to, ST plants. Some differences in leaf size and pattern were observed; however, the differences were related to the increased vigor of TC plants of these cultivars. Total growth of TC and ST plants of ‘Black Satin’, ‘Hull Thornless’, ‘Thornfree’, and SI-US 68-6-17 was similar. ST plants of ‘Dirksen Thornless’ and ‘Smoothstem’ failed to grow as rapidly as TC plants of these cultivars or ST plants of the other cultivars, resulting in significantly reduced 2nd-year yields. First-year growth of all TC plants was more uniform than corresponding ST plants. On the average, fruit size was smaller on TC plants; however, this was true in both years only for ‘Black Satin’. The response varied for other cultivars with TC plants of ‘Dirksen Thornless’ actually having larger fruits in one year. No consistent differences in bloom date or median harvest date due to propagation method were observed. No variant plants were observed in the field; however, one sectorial leaf chlorotic variant was observed after TC propagation but prior to field planting.
A major objective of the MD/NJ/VA/WI Cooperative Raspberry Breeding Program is to develop new primocane-fruiting raspberry cultivars that are early, with large fruit size, and good fresh flavor, relative to the `Heritage' standard. Step I seedling selections were made and tissue culture-propagated. The Step III advanced selection trial, planted in 1993, consisted of two advanced selections, JCR-F1 [Geo-1 (Autumn Bliss × Glen Moy) × Heritage–red], and JEF-B1 (Amity × Glen Eagles–golden), with a `Heritage' check. The planting was a RCB (four replications), with 3-m plots, 60-cm plant spacing, on raised beds with black plastic mulch (establishment year), and trickle irrigation. The 1994 season started dry, and mid-summer was warm and wet, inducing an early harvest overall. JCR-F1 was >2 weeks earlier, 40% higher yielding, with 18% larger fruit size than `Heritage'. JCR-F1 fruit was tall conic, cohesive, and had good flavor; plant vigor was very good. JEF-B1 was 10 days earlier than `Heritage', had 40% larger fruit size, but was 25% lower yielding; plant vigor was also good. The flavor was described as banana and apricot. The planting will be fruited for multiple seasons for continued comparison.
Open-pollinated species, interspecific hybrid seedling populations, and selected clones propagated by softwood cuttings and tissue culture were used to further evaluate the use of dry soil to screen blueberry seedlings for drought resistance. These different propagation types of Vaccinium (subgenus Cyanococcus) were screened for drought resistance in a Galestown fine sandy loam soil. The soil was permitted to dry to progressively higher soil tension levels to a maximum of 0.8 MPa. The plants were evaluated by scoring them on a 1 to 9 shoot damage rating scale and by determining the fraction of total biomass partitioned as roots. Drought resistance in blueberries is heritable and there is a high degree of genetic diversity within and among Vaccinium spp. for resistance to water deficits. Southern species (Vaccinium darrowi Camp, V. elliottii Chapman, and V. ashei Reade) were more drought-resistant than northern species (V. corymbosum L., V. vacillans Torrey, and V. myrtilloides Michaux), which demonstrated the reliability of this soil screening method. Clones with half their germplasm from southern species were usually drought-resistant. This screening method can be used to select for shoot and root vigor and drought resistance in 6- to 7-month-old blueberry seedlings.
The net carbon exchange rate (NCER) of Fragaria species, synthetic octoploids [SO (interspecific hybrids)], F1 (SO × cultivar), and first outcross [OC1 (F1 × cultivar)] hybrids were evaluated in both field and greenhouse conditions. Plants were grown in a field trial at the Elora Research Station in Ontario, Canada, for one season and then plants were dug and moved into a greenhouse where the trial was repeated during the next season. Single leaf photosynthesis measurements and light response curves were generated at different stages of plant development. Photosynthetic capacity of the species was related to the ecological background of the species with sun-adapted species having higher rates compared with the shade-adapted species. The Fragaria species and introgressed hybrids (F1 and OC1) had significantly higher NCERs compared with the cultivars with rates 28% and 23% higher, respectively. Species and hybrids also appear to have increased adaptability to both high and low light conditions. These increases in NCER may be a heterotic effect because NCER of the hybrids were consistently higher compared with the midparent values and in some cases, they were higher than the high parent. These results suggest that the introgression of lower-ploidy Fragaria species into the cultivated strawberry (Fragaria ×ananassa) may lead to increased NCER and light adaptability.