Vegetable soybeans (Glycine max), the same species as field-dried soybeans, have similar production requirements and good market potential for commercial producers in upper midwestern United States. Five vegetable soybean cultivars were tested for yield and quality characteristics and to assess the necessity of field irrigation during 2003 and 2004 in North Dakota. Cultivars of different maturity dates were evaluated for stand densities, pod production, seed weight, and marketable yield. Total marketable yields varied between the years, ranging from 5773 to 10,118 lb/acre. Lower yields in 2003 were attributed to significantly lower population stands caused by poor germination conditions. `Envy', the earliest maturing cultivar, produced a significantly smaller seed size, while `Sayamusume' produced a greater seed size than the other cultivars both years. `Butterbean', `IA1010', and `IA2062' yielded greater percentages of three-bean pods than the other two cultivars each growing season. Irrigation did not increase the marketable pod yield or the quality variables examined each season; thus it appears that rainfall during the growing season may be adequate for vegetable soybean production in this region.
Traditionally, the structure of higher-order data in genotype-by-environment interaction requires simplification to use bilinear reduction models. Flexible multiway reduction models have been claimed to be more informative, as they allow exploration of individual trends and account for the covariance among data modes. In complex latent traits, such as acclimation response of grapevine (Vitis sp.), these methods may offer increased insight into plant adaptive processes. In a growth chamber study, data from seven phenotypic traits at 11 photoperiodic times in the presence of two temperatures of 30 accessions were analyzed. The four-way interaction among these data modes was isolated and further examined through bilinear singular value decomposition (SVD) and multiway Tucker decomposition models. A similar set of three latent process traits were identified regardless of model used. The Tucker decomposition model led to more concise clustering of wild-type accessions, was more interpretable, as trends could be evaluated separately, and had less indication of overfitting; therefore, the multiway method was preferred over the standard SVD bilinear method in the investigation of high-order interaction in acclimation response. This methodology may offer insight into other complex traits, such as phenolic development, drought tolerance, and horizontal disease resistance to improve breeding efforts as other individual mechanisms used by the organism are separated, quantified, and compared rather than the culmination of events as an end-product.
Field trials were conducted to evaluate the effect of planting configurations (raised bed and no bed) and reservoir tillage on onion (Allium cepa) yield and grade when a cereal grass or cool-season broadleaf species was used as a companion crop. Total onion yield, the number of plants harvested, percentage of single centers, and cull-sized bulb yields did not differ among planting configurations. However, planting onion seed in raised beds with reservoir tillage resulted in more large-diameter bulbs compared to planting without a bed configuration. Raised beds also had fewer small-sized bulbs than the non-bed configuration. Companion crop influence on onion yield and grade varied among environments (location plus year). In general, canola (Brassica napus) as a companion crop increased the yield of small-sized bulbs and decreased total yield and the yield of large-sized bulbs. These results were attributed to poor canola control from the initial bromoxynil plus oxyfluorfen application because each label restricts application until onions have reached the two true-leaf stage. Onion yield and grade with barley (Hordeum vulgare) as a companion crop was similar to that of onion with no companion crop except during 2002 (Carrington) when rain delayed the postemergence grass herbicide application and lowered onion yield.
Three cultivars of annual statice (Limonium sinuatum mill, and L. bonduelli Kuntze) were grown in a fertile, silty clay loam field and fertilized with varying amounts of granular 12N–5.3P–10K. Mean individual stem weight, flower stem number, and mean and total fresh weight increased significantly due to fertilizer applications. Cultivar differences limited increases in rosette diameter, mean stem length, individual stem weight, and flower stem number. Field fertilizer application rates between 45.4 and 68.1 kg N/ha increased total fresh weight of ‘Iceberg’ and ‘Kampf's Blue’, but did not affect ‘Gold Coast’. Number of subsequent fertilizer applications beyond the initial application was not as critical as total amount applied.
Field trials were initiated during 2004 at a dryland site near Prosper, N.D., to evaluate the effects of simulated drift from glyphosate to `Russet Burbank' and `Red Lasoda' seed potato during the early senescence stage. Glyphosate was applied at rates 1/3, 1/6, 1/12, 1/24, and 1/48 the use rate for spring wheat desiccation on 10 Sept. 2004 with a CO2 pressurized sprayer operated at 280 L/ha and 276 kPa. The amount of a.m.S added to the spray solution was also reduced accordingly. Following harvest, samples from each plot were placed into cold storage until the following March. A subsample from each plot was slowly warmed to initiate sprout formation. Remaining samples were cut into 57-g pieces, dusted with a seed piece treatment, and stored at 18 °C with about 90% RH until planted. Plots consisted of two 3-m rows at 91 cm-row spacing with a border row on each side and three spacer plants between plots. The trial was arranged as a randomized complete block with four replications. Plots were desiccated on 12 and 19 Sept. and harvested 11 Oct. Tubers were hand-graded shortly after harvest. Results indicated that glyphosate at 70 g ae/ha or more inhibited tuber budbreak by 75% or more compared to untreated. In the field, injury was observed as delayed emergence and, in several instances, no plants emerged. Total yield for `Red Lasoda' was 34.8 Mg/ha for the untreated, which was significantly greater than glyphosate treatments of 280, 140, and 70 g ae/ha. `Russet Burbank' total yield was considerably less at 23.5 Mg/ha for the untreated. Both the untreated and glyphosate at 18 g ae/ha had significantly greater total yields compared with glyphosate treatments of 280, 140, and 70 g ae/ha.
Elemental sulfur is commonly applied for powdery mildew (Erysiphe necator) protection on winegrape (Vitis sp.). The product may be used in a diversified, integrated disease management system to help prevent fungicide resistance to products with other modes of action. Additionally, sulfur may be used as a control option in organic systems. Applications of sulfur have been known to cause phytotoxic injury to susceptible winegrape cultivars, particularly those stemming from fox grape (Vitis labrusca) parentage. To improve recommendations to producers in the northern Great Plains region of the United States, a comparison of injury incidence and severity, as well as effects on yield characteristics was undertaken for 13 regional cultivars exposed to three sulfur rates (0, 2.4, and 4.8 lb/acre a.i.) at a North Dakota State University Research Station near Absaraka, ND. Overall, four cultivars (Bluebell, Baltica, Sabrevois, and King of the North) of the 13 cultivars tested showed phytotoxic symptoms. Injury severity and incidence of these cultivars differed between years and across rates. ‘Bluebell’ showed consistent and severe sulfur injury symptoms. Injury to the other three susceptible cultivars tended to vary by the given environment, with King of the North generally showing the lowest injury response. Injury symptoms were not found to be associated with the overall yield or cluster weight. Results suggest that alternative spray programs that exclude sulfur-based fungicides should be recommended for ‘Bluebell’, ‘Baltica’, ‘Sabrevois’, and ‘King of the North’, whereas sulfur-based fungicides may be applied to ‘Alpenglow’, ‘ES 12-6-18’, ‘Frontenac’, ‘Frontenac Gris’, ‘La Crescent’, ‘Marquette’, ‘Somerset Seedless’, ‘St. Croix’, and ‘Valiant’. Observations on fruit ripening in 2014 suggest that future research is needed to determine if a reduction of fruit quality may occur in some seasons with repeated sulfur applications or with successive annual sulfur applications for susceptible cultivars if used in an organic production system.
Field studies were conducted at Absaraka, Carrington, and Oakes, N.D., in 2005 to evaluate early season broadleaf weed control and onion (Allium cepa L.) injury with herbicides applied preemergence to the crop. DCPA is a common preemergence herbicide used in onion. However, DCPA can be uneconomical in most high-weed situations, or the usage may be restricted due to possible groundwater contamination. Potential substitutes evaluated were bromoxynil, dimethenamid-P, and pendimethalin. Main broadleaf weeds were redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus L.) and common lambsquarters (Chenopodium album L.). In general, all herbicides, except bromoxynil, provided acceptable broadleaf weed control 4 weeks after treatment. The highest herbicide rate provided greater weed control compared with the lowest rate for each herbicide. However, onion height was also reduced with the highest herbicide rate. In addition, the two highest rates of dimethenamid-P reduced the onion stand compared with the untreated. A postemergence application of bromoxynil + oxyfluorfen + pendimethalin to onion at the four- to five-leaf stage controlled the few broadleaf weeds that escaped the preemergence treatments and provided residual control of mid- and late-season germinating broadleaf weeds at two of the three locations. Intense germination of redroot pigweed during July at the Oakes location reduced onion yield with all treatments compared with the hand-weeded check. In contrast, total onion yields with all herbicide treatments except the high rate of dimethenamid-P were similar to the hand-weeded check at Absaraka and Carrington.