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Harbans L. Bhardwaj

Winter legume cover crops have been successfully used to meet N needs of many summer crops, but they are not being used extensively in Virginia and the mid-Atlantic region, especially for specialty crops such as muskmelon and sweet corn. The objective of these studies was to determine the potential of winter legume cover crops in meeting N needs of muskmelon (Cucumis melo L.) and sweet corn (Zea mays L.). Comparisons of performances of muskmelon and sweet corn, grown after lupin (Lupinus albus L.), hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth.), Austrian winter pea ([AWP] Pisum arvense L.), and control fertilized with 112 kg N ha–1, and unfertilized control were made during 1999, 2000, and 2001. The interactions between cover crop treatments and years were, generally, significant. The muskmelon fruit yields were 53.6, 45.0, 23.1, 13.0, and 5.6 Mg·ha–1 during 1999; 27.8, 26.3, 8.6, 5.8, and 2.2 Mg·ha–1 during 2000; and 41.1, 39.9, 25.5, 21.4, and 2.1 Mg·ha–1 during 2001 respectively for lupin, hairy vetch, AWP, 112 kg N ha–1, and control. Similar results were obtained for number and size of muskmelon fruits. The sweet corn ear yields (Mg·ha–1) were 8.5, 5.6, 3.1, 1.5, and 0.7 during 1999; 5.2, 3.9, 4.0, 4.8, and 1.2 during 2000; and 2.6, 2.4, 1.9, 2.0, and 0.9 during 2001, respectively for lupin, hairy vetch, AWP, 112 kg N ha–1, and control. White lupin and hairy vetch, as winter cover crops, were superior than AWP and 112 kg N ha–1 for sweet corn ear number and size, and plant height. These results demonstrated that winter legume crops, especially lupin and hairy vetch, can be excellent winter cover crops for meeting N needs of muskmelon and sweet corn.

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Harbans L. Bhardwaj and Anwar A. Hamama

Tepary bean (Phaseolus acutifolius A. Gray), a native of southwestern U.S., is a promising plant for crop diversification and for production in short rotations with wheat. However, protein and mineral concentrations in tepary bean seed produced outside the southwestern U.S. are largely unknown. We evaluated concentrations of protein and various minerals in seed produced by eight tepary bean genotypes planted at three different dates each during 1997 and 1998 at Ettrick, Virginia. Significant year × planting date and year × genotype interactions existed for protein and other traits. Protein and zinc concentrations increased and calcium concentrations decreased with later plantings during both years. Mid-June planting had 14% higher protein concentration (24.5%) than late-May planting (21.4%) and mid-July planting had 6% higher protein concentration (25.9%) than mid-June planting. Color of seedcoat was not associated with concentrations of protein or minerals. The average concentrations of boron, calcium, copper, iron, potassium, magnesium, manganese, phosphorus, sulfur, and zinc (mg/100g) were: 1, 184, 1, 11, 1531, 192, 3, 451, 311, 4, respectively. Tepary bean seeds contained 24% protein as compared to reported average values of 22.3% in navy, 22.5% in red kidney, and 20.9% in pinto bean. The average iron concentration (mg/100g) in tepary bean seed (10.7) was higher than that in navy (6.4), red kidney (6.7), and pinto (5.9) bean. Based on protein and mineral concentrations tepary bean seed compared well with seeds of navy, red kidney, or pinto bean.

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Harbans L. Bhardwaj and Anwar A. Hamama

Sprouts from seeds of cruciferous plants, such as brussels sprouts, broccoli, and cauliflower (Brassica sp.) are considered desirable for human diets. However, no information is available about sprouts made from seeds of canola (Brassica napus L.), a cruciferous crop that is increasing in acreage in the United States and is considered a source of healthful, edible oil. This study reports contents of aluminum (Al), boron (B), calcium (Ca), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), potassium (K), magnesium (Mg), manganese (Mn), sodium (Na), phosphorus (P), sulfur (S), and zinc (Zn) in sprouts made from seeds of four canola cultivars (Banjo, KS 8200, KS 8227, and Virginia) grown at three locations (Orange, Petersburg, and Suffolk) in Virginia during two crop seasons (2001–02 and 2002–03). The contents of protein, oil, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, and Na (expressed as percent on a dry weight basis) in canola sprouts were 27.33, 25.1, 0.61, 0.43, 0.43, 0.31, 0.57, and 0.01, respectively. The contents of B, Cu, Fe, Mn, and Zn (expressed as mg·kg−1) in canola sprouts were 12.35, 5.69, 88.46, 45.44, and 48.98, respectively. Contents of various minerals in canola sprouts were greater than those in sprouts of alfalfa, brussels sprouts, mungbean, and radish reported in the literature. It was concluded that canola sprouts are a potential component of diets for superior human nutrition.

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Harbans L. Bhardwaj and Anwar A. Hamama

Although sprouts have played a significant role in human nutrition, there is a lack of information about sprouts made from seed of canola, a new crop in the United States as a source of edible and industrial-use oil. We studied oil content and fatty acid composition in sprouts made from seed of four canola cultivars (Banjo, KS 8200, KS 8227, and Virginia) grown at three locations in Virginia (Orange, Petersburg, and Suffolk) during 2001–2002 and 2002–2003 crop seasons. Canola cultivars exhibited significant effects on contents of oil and all fatty acids except for C20:0, whereas growing locations only affected contents of oil and C22:0, C18:2, and C18:3 fatty acids in the sprouts. The contents of oil and C16:0, C18:0, C20:0 C22:0, C24:0, C16:1, C18:1, C18:2, C18:3, C20:1, C22:1, total saturated, total unsaturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated in canola sprouts were 27.33%, 5.38%, 1.21%, 0.53%, 0.27%, 0.15%, 0.68%, 45.71%, 18.35%, 8.82%, 7.44%, 11.46%, 7.54%, 92.46%, 60.18%, and 27.17% of total fatty acids, respectively. The ratio of C18:2 to C18:3 fatty acids in canola sprouts averaged 1.00 to 2.09 with Virginia cultivar having the highest ratio (2.33) and KS 8227 having the lowest ratio (1.91). These ratios were within the recommended ratios of 1.00 to 4.00 for optimal human nutrition. Our results indicated that, based only on oil and fatty acid contents, canola sprouts may be healthier than alfalfa, brussels sprout, mungbean, and radish sprouts.

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Harbans L. Bhardwaj and Anwar A. Hamama

Mungbean [Vigna radiata (L.) R. Wilczek, Fabaceae] is one of the most important food legume crops in Asia. It is also gaining importance in other parts of the world such as Australia and Canada. The United States imported mungbean worth ≈22 million dollars during 2014. To establish domestic production and to determine if mungbean can be produced in rotation with winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), replicated experiments were conducted during 2012 and 2013 using two cultivars (Berken and TexSprout), two planting dates (early and late July), and two row spacings (37.5 and 75 cm). Cultivar and planting date effects on seed yield were not significant, however, narrow row spacing resulted in significant higher seed yield and concentration of protein over the wider row spacing (1.76 vs. 0.86 Mg⋅ha−1 yield and 24.9% vs. 23.7% protein). Early planting resulted in lower sugar and oil concentrations over late planting (4.4% vs. 5.5% sugar and 1.24% vs. 1.99% oil). Average mungbean values for seed yield, seed size, and concentrations of protein, sugars, and oil were 1.31 Mg⋅ha−1, 7.08 g/seed100, 24.3%, 4.91%, and 1.59%, respectively. Low harvest index values (17% to 25%) indicated that potential exists for improvement in mungbean seed yield. The results indicated that mungbean can be easily produced in rotation with winter wheat in the mid-Atlantic region of the United States.

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Harbans L. Bhardwaj and Anwar A. Hamama

Information about oil and fatty acids in tepary bean (Phaseolus acutifolius A. Gray) seed, a promising alternative crop for the mid-Atlantic region of U.S., is largely unknown. Such information is needed to assess the food and feed potentials of tepary bean seed. We determined the concentrations of oil and fatty acids in seed produced by eight tepary bean genotypes planted at three different dates each during 1997 and 1998 at Ettrick, Va. Tepary bean seeds contained 1.8% oil as compared to literature values of 1.3%, 1.1%, and 1.1% for navy, kidney, and pinto beans, respectively. Tepary bean seed oil contained 33% saturated, 67% unsaturated, 24% monounsaturated, and 42% polyunsaturated fatty acids. Planting dates and genotypes did not affect oil concentration. Neb-T-14 was identified to be a desirable genotype based on a low concentration of saturated and a high concentration of polyunsaturated fatty acids. Based on concentrations of oil and fatty acids, tepary bean seeds compared well with those of navy, kidney, and pinto beans.

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Harbans L. Bhardwaj and Anwar A. Hamama

In recent times, the use of sprouted seeds has become popular in human diets. Considerable information is available in the literature about various types of sprouts such as alfalfa, mungbean, and radish. However, information about canola (Brassica napus L.) sprouts, an oilseed crop that is receiving serious consideration as a source of domestic oil for human consumption, is lacking. We studied the composition traits of sprouts made from four canola cultivars (‘Banjo’, ‘KS8200’, ‘KS8227’, and ‘Virginia’) grown at three locations (Orange, Petersburg, and Suffolk) in Virginia for two crop seasons (2001 to 2002 and 2002 to 2003). Two 20-g seed samples (two replications) of each cultivar × location combination were sprouted for 6 d in the laboratory using tap water. Sprouting of canola seeds increased the weight 5.6 times over the original seed weight. Canola sprouts, on average, contained 27.3% oil, 25.1% protein, and 10.8% crude fiber on dry weight basis. Fresh yield of canola sprouts, from 20-g seed, averaged 111.1 g, whereas moisture content averaged 80.3%. Effects of cultivars on fresh sprout yield and moisture content were not significant. Locations where seeds were grown had significant effects on all traits of canola sprouts except for fresh sprout yield. Canola sprouts made from seed of ‘Virginia’ cultivar had the highest protein content (26.2%), whereas those made from seeds of ‘KS8227’ cultivar had the highest oil content (28.7%). Based on traits under study, canola sprouts compared well with alfalfa, brussel sprouts, mungbean, and radish sprouts for overall nutritional quality.

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Harbans L. Bhardwaj and Anwar A. Hamama

Even though mothbean (Vigna aconitifolia), a drought- and heat-tolerant crop, may have potential in the eastern United States, information about its production in this region is not available. To characterize potential seed yields and preliminary nutritional quality, 54 accessions were grown near Petersburg, VA, during 2011, 2012, and 2013. The seed yields varied from 48 to 413 lb/acre. The mean concentrations of protein, calcium, iron, and zinc in mature mothbean seed were 21.9%, 0.17%, 64.8 ppm, and 37.5 ppm, respectively. These values compared well with those in mungbean (Vigna radiata) and tepary bean (Phaseolus acutifolius). The results demonstrated that mothbean has considerable potential as an alternative, new food legume crop in Virginia and eastern United States.

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Harbans L. Bhardwaj and Anwar A. Hamama

Lablab [Lablab purpureus (L.) Sweet], which is one of the most ancient crops among cultivated plants, is a relatively unknown crop in the United States. Lablab is a major source of protein in the human diet in many parts of the world. Even though lablab is a potential alternative food and feed crop in other areas of the United States, it is expected to produce seed in southern United States (Florida, Georgia, and Texas). However, there is a lack of information about production potential of lablab in Virginia and adjoining states. We report the results of a replicated field study that was conducted for 2 years with 17 lablab lines in Virginia. The seed yield varied from 559 to 1678, with a mean yield of 1012 kg·ha−1. The seed protein concentration varied from 20.6 to 28.8, with a mean concentration of 25.4%. Lablab seed contained small amounts of oil (0.54% to 1.13%). Total sugars in lablab seed meal varied from 4.2% to 10.1%. Based on seed yields from other parts of the world and concentrations of protein, oil, and total sugars reported in literature regarding other food legumes, we concluded that lablab is a potential alternative summer crop in Virginia and other mid-Atlantic states.

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Harbans L. Bhardwaj, Anwar A. Hamama, and Muddappa Rangappa

Lack of adequate processing facilities has been a major hindrance in the adoption of canola (Brassica napus L. and Brassica rapa L.) as an alternative oilseed crop in the southern United States. Therefore, development of alternative uses could be instrumental in facilitating adoption of canola by American farmers. We evaluated chemical composition of greens from four canola cultivars (`Dixie', `Falcon', `HN120-91', and `Jetton') grown during 1995-96 and 1996-97 at Petersburg, Va., to determine their potential as a food and feed source. The results indicated potential yield of ≈11 t·ha-1 of fresh greens and ≈1 t·ha-1 of dry matter. The canola greens contained 3.4% oil and 30.6% protein on a dry weight basis. Canola greens contained 0.52%, 4.14%, 0.35%, 1.59%, and 0.20% (dry weight basis) of phosphorus, potassium, magnesium, calcium, and sodium, respectively. Canola greens also contained 0.94, 2.02, 5.47, 14.65, 28.61, 0.74, and 31.92 (mg/100 g dry weight basis) of sulfur, boron, zinc, manganese, iron, copper, and aluminum, respectively. The oil in canola greens contained 18.79%, 81.14%, 15.36%, and 65.78% saturated, unsaturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated fatty acids, respectively. Based on these values, canola greens compared favorably with mustard and turnip greens.