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- Author or Editor: Han Huang x
Tomato seeds were more responsive than wheat or lettuce seeds to the presence of an inhibitor in the juice of tomato fruits. Seed germination and seedling growth decreased with increasing concentrations of juice. Inhibition of seed germination in 20% juice with an osmotic concentration of less than 0.1 M was significantly less than in 0.1 M glucose or mannitol with 0.01 M citric acid at pH 4.4. The inhibitor in tomato juice was thermostable, but the effect decreased with prolonged storage at -20°C. There were cultivar differences in the amount of inhibitor present in ripe tomato fruits.
The objectives of this study were to examine antioxidant enzyme responses to drought stress and rewatering at both enzymatic activity and transcript levels and to determine the major antioxidant processes associated with drought tolerance and post-drought recovery for a perennial grass species, kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis). Antioxidant enzyme responses to drought and rewatering in a drought-tolerant cultivar (Midnight) and a drought-sensitive cultivar (Brilliant) were compared in a growth chamber. Plants were exposed to 22 days of drought stress for ‘Midnight’ and 18 days for ‘Brilliant’ before rewatering to allow the leaf relative water content (RWC) of both cultivars to drop to the same level. ‘Midnight’ exhibited higher photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fm) and lower electrolyte leakage compared with ‘Brilliant’ when at the same water deficit status (26% to 28% RWC). After 6 days of rewatering, all physiological parameters returned to the control level for ‘Midnight’, but only Fv/Fm fully recovered for ‘Brilliant’. The transcript level of cytosolic copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (cyt Cu/Zn SOD) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) was significantly higher in ‘Midnight’ than in ‘Brilliant’ when exposed to the same level of water deficit (26% to 28% RWC), suggesting that SOD and APX could be involved in scavenging oxidative stress-induced reactive oxygen species in kentucky bluegrass through changes in the level of gene expression. Significantly higher activities of APX, monodehydroascorbate reductase, glutathione reductase, and dehydroascorbate reductase as well as lower lipid peroxidation levels were observed in ‘Midnight’ versus ‘Brilliant’ when exposed to drought. However, the activities of SOD, catalase (CAT), and guaiacol peroxidase (POD) did not differ between the two cultivars. After 6 days of rewatering, ‘Midnight’ displayed significantly higher activity levels of CAT, POD, and APX compared with ‘Brilliant’. The enzyme activity results indicate that enzymes involved in the ascorbate–glutathine cycle may play important roles in antioxidant protection to drought damage, whereas CAT, POD, and APX could be associated with better post-drought recovery in kentucky bluegrass.
An improved three-stage protocol for plant regeneration via somatic embryogenesis of the horticulturally important plant Iris germanica L. was developed using shoot apex segments as explants. At the first stage of the experiment, 60% of callus was obtained from shoot apex segments of I. germanica on Murashige and Skoog’s (MS) medium supplemented with 4.52 μm 2,4-dichloropheoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and 0.44 μm 6-benzyladenine (6-BA). When nonembryogenic calli were subcultured on MS medium with 11.31 μm 2,4-D and 0.44 μm 6-BA, maximum frequency of embryogenic callus (66.0%) was obtained. At the second stage, the treatment of 9% (w/v) sucrose resulted in the optimum somatic embryo (SE) formation (70.0%). More than 90.0% of SEs germinated with bipolar structure and regenerated into plantlets on plant growth regulator-(PGR)free MS medium during the third stage. Regenerated plantlets were successfully acclimatized in greenhouse environment with little somaclonal variation. Histological study showed that somatic embryogenesis stages were asynchronous and SEs developed from the surface and inner tissue of embryogenic calli.
Turfgrass growth and physiological activities are sensitive to temperatures and are affected by mowing height. Increasing temperatures associated with global climate change may limit photosynthetic capacity of established turfgrass stands. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of mowing height on carbon exchange of a turfgrass system and consequential effects on turfgrass growth in response to temperature variations across the growing season in kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis cv. Baron) stands. Mature (8 years old) turfgrass was mowed at 7.6 cm [high mowing height (HM)] or 3.8 cm [low mowing height (LM)] during 2012 and 2013. Both LM and HM plots displayed significant decline in turf quality (TQ), shoot biomass, and canopy photosynthetic rate (Pn) with increasing air temperature above 23–24 °C in both years and the decline was more pronounced for LM plots. Turf plots were carbon emitters when total respiration rate of shoots, roots, and soil (Rtotal) exceeded canopy Pn under high temperatures during July–September but maintained net carbon gain during cooler seasons (May and June) due to greater Pn to Rtotal ratio (Pn:Rtotal). Lowering mowing height accelerated carbon loss by reducing canopy Pn, particularly under high temperatures. Our results suggested that whether mature turfgrass stands fix or emit carbon is heavily dependent on interaction between seasonal temperatures and mowing height gauging whole-stand photosynthetic capacity. Furthermore, increasing mowing height during summer months may offset the deleterious effects of high temperature by maintaining positive carbon balance within the turfgrass system.
To study the effects of soil nitrogen (N) fertilization on tea growth, quality and yield, a controlled experiment with green tea [Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Ktze] was conducted. Five N fertilization treatments in soil were designed: 0, 0.97, 1.94, 3.88, and 5.82 g/kg/pot, which were subsequently recorded as N0, N1, N2, N3, and N4. The changes to young shoot biomass, total N and carbon (C), Soil and Plant Analyzer Development (SPAD) value, photosynthetic parameters, senescent characteristics, endogenous hormones, and the quality of green tea leaves were investigated. The results showed that with the increase in N fertilization level, the young shoot biomass, total N and C, SPAD value, net photosynthetic rate (P N), transpiration rate (T r), stomatal conductance (g S), superoxide dismutase activity, indoleacetic acid, gibberellin, zeatin (ZT), caffeine, and amino acids increased at first and then decreased, the maximums appeared at 3.88 g/kg/pot; whereas the intercellular CO2 concentration (C i), malondialdehvde contents, abscisic acid (ABA), polyphenol contents, and the ratio of polyphenols (PP) to free amino acid decreased at first and then increased, the minimums appeared at 3.88 g/kg/pot. The immediately significant change in all parameters appeared after 1 month of N treatments. The experiment showed that 3.88 g/kg/pot N fertilization level was the best for growth, quality, and yield of tea, which could provide a theoretical basis for short-term N fertilization management in tea tree.
Scab, caused by Cladosporium cucumerinum Ell. et Arthur, is a prevalent disease of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) worldwide. Scab can cause serious losses for cucumber production, especially in protected culture such as high tunnel production. Resistance to cucumber scab is dominant and is controlled by a single gene, Ccu. Breeding for resistant cultivars is the most efficient way to control the disease. Selection for resistance might be made easier if the gene were mapped to linked markers. Thus far, there are no tightly linked (genetic distance less than 1 cM) simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers for the Ccu gene, and no studies on mapping of the Ccu gene in cucumber using SSR markers. The objective of this study was to identify SSR markers for use in molecular breeding of scab resistance. In this study, we used a population of recombinant inbred lines (RILs). The population included 148 individuals derived from the cucumber inbred line 9110 Gt (Ccu Ccu) crossed with line 9930 (ccu ccu). The Ccu gene was mapped to linkage group 2, corresponding to chromosome 2 of cucumber. The flanking markers SSR03084 and SSR17631 were linked to the Ccu gene with distances of 0.7 and 1.6 cM, respectively. The veracity of SSR03084 and SSR17631 was tested using 59 diverse inbred lines and hybrids, and the accuracy rate for the two markers was 98.3%. In conclusion, two SSRs closely linked to scab resistance gene Ccu have been identified and can be used in a cucumber breeding program.
The NAC (NAM, ATAF1/2, and CUC2) family is a group of plant-specific transcription factors that have vital roles in the growth and development of plants, and especially in fruit and kernel development. This study aimed to identify members of the NAC gene (PsNACs) family and investigate their functions in siberian apricot (Prunus sibirica). A total of 102 predicted PsNAC proteins (PsNACs) were divided into 14 clades and the genes were mapped to the eight chromosomes in siberian apricot. The PsNACs of the same clade had similar structures. A synteny analysis showed that the PsNACs had close relationships with the NAC genes of japanese apricot (Prunus mume). An expression pattern analysis of the PsNACs revealed many differences in various tissues and at different stages of fruit and kernel development. All eight PsNACs in clade XI have crucial roles in fruit and kernel development. Seven PsNACs (PsNACs 18, 64, 23, 33, 9, 4, and 50) in clades I, III, VI, VII, and XIII are related to fruit development. Eight PsNACs (PsNACs 6, 13, 46, 51, 41, 67, 37, and 59) in clades I, II, V, VIII, and XIII are involved in fruit ripening. Five PsNACs (PsNACs 6, 94, 41, 32, and 17) in clades I, IV, V, VII, and XI regulated the rapid growth of the kernel. Four PsNACs (PsNACs 50, 4, 67, and 84) in clades I, III, V, and XIII affected the hardening of the kernel. Four PsNACs (PsNACs 17, 82, 13, and 51) in clades II, XI, and IX acted on kernel maturation. We have characterized the NAC genes in siberian apricot during this study. Our results will provide resources for future research of the biological roles of PsNACs in fruit and kernel development in siberian apricot.