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- Author or Editor: Hamidou F. Sakhanokho x
Christia obcordata is an intriguing small-sized house plant with unusual and attractive features such as its striped leaves. Because very little is known about the plant, we conducted an investigation of its genome and chromosomes. The number of chromosomes was determined using a protoplast technique to prepare root tip chromosome spread and was found to be 2n = 2x = 20. Flow cytometry was used to determine nuclear DNA content (1C = 0.65 pg = 634.4 Mb) for C. obcordata and AT/GC composition was shown to be AT% = 62.8% ± 0.0% and GC% = 37.2% ± 0.0%. Finally, fluorescent in situ hybridization was used to locate ribosomal RNA gene families in C. obcordata. Ribosomal RNA gene families, viz. 18S-28S and 5S rDNA, are unique cytomolecular landmarks that provide valuable information about the evolutionary organization of a genome. We have identified one locus each of 18S-28S and 5S rDNA. The 18S-28S rDNA is located in the subterminal position on the secondary constriction region [also known as the nucleolus organizer region (NOR)] and the 5S rDNA is located interstitially close to a centromeric position. The basic information gathered in this study on C. obcordata will be helpful in understanding the genetics of this species.
We report for the first time the incidence of spontaneous autotetraploidy in Solanum aethiopicum (PI 636107). Stomatal dimensions and frequency, number of chloroplasts per guard cell, flow cytometry, and chromosome counts were used to differentiate the diploid plants from tetraploids. The impact of increased ploidy on pollen viability as assessed by in vitro germination and on selected morphological traits was evaluated. In vitro pollen germination was reduced in tetraploid plants, but no significant differences were found in fruit production per plant between diploid and tetraploid plants. Compared with the diploids, the tetraploid plants were significantly shorter and had wider leaves and smaller fruits; therefore, tetraploid S. aethiopicum plants can be valuable for future breeding programs, particularly those aiming to develop shorter, more compact plants. Moreover, some S. aethiopicum selections are grown for their edible leaves, so tetraploid plants producing large leaves would be desirable. Additionally, the availability of tetraploid S. aethiopicum could remove hybridization barriers caused by ploidy differences with other tetraploid Solanum species.
The ploidy level of H. muluense, a diploid (2n = 2x = 34) and dwarf ornamental ginger species, has been determined and is reported for the first time. Oryzalin and colchicine were successfully used to induce polyploidy in Hedychium muluense in vitro. Embryogenic cell lines were treated with oryzalin (30, 60, or 120 μM) and colchicine (2.5, 5, or 10 mm) for 24, 48, or 72 h. The control contained no antimitotic agent. Flow cytometry, chloroplast count, and stomatal frequency were more effective and reliable than stomatal length as methods for assessing ploidy. Overall, oryzalin was more effective than colchicine in inducing polyploidy. The highest induction frequency (15%) of tetraploidy was achieved when embryogenic callus was exposed to 60 μM oryzalin for 72 h. For colchicine, exposure of embryogenic callus to the 2.5 mm colchicine for 24 h was the most effective in creating tetraploid (13%) plants.
An efficient primary somatic embryo (SE) and secondary somatic embryo (SSE) production system was developed for the ornamental ginger Hedychium bousigonianum Pierre ex Gagnepain. Addition of two ethylene inhibitors, salicylic acid (SA) and silver nitrate (AgNO3), to the culture media improved the system. Callus was initiated and proliferated on a medium containing Murashige and Skoog (MS) basal salts supplemented with 9.05 μM 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and 4.6 μM kinetin. Friable callus was transferred to a liquid medium containing MS basal salts, B5 vitamins, 0.6 μM thidiazuron, and 8.9 μM 6-benzylaminopurine to induce somatic embryogenesis. The effects of various concentrations of SA (0, 25, 50, 75, 100, 125, 150 μM) and AgNO3 (0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60 μM) on callus growth, SE, and SSE development was further evaluated. The rate of callus growth decreased as the concentrations of SA or AgNO3 increased. AgNO3 and SA at all concentrations stimulated SE and SSE development better than the control although a decrease in embryo production was observed at higher concentrations of both SA and AgNO3. The best concentrations for SA were 75 and 100 μM, whereas for AgNO3, they were 30 to 50 μM for both SE and SSE production.
Ziziphus mauritiana Lam. is a widespread shrub or tree of the Sahel region, where it grows wild and is used for various purposes, including nutrition, medicine, and firewood. Current domestication programs focus on using the local species as rootstock for the improved imported Asian cultivars to provide tolerance to pests and diseases. The plant plays an increasing economic role in the livelihoods of local Sahelian populations, but despite this there is little genetic information about it. The purpose of our study was to determine the genome size estimate and chromosome numbers of Z. mauritiana germplasm collected from eastern Senegal, West Africa. Genome size estimates were determined using flow cytometry, and chromosome count was achieved using chromosome spreads of actively growing root tips. The mean, median, minimum, and maximum genome size estimates (1Cx-DNA) of Z. mauritiana were 418.74 Mb, 417.45 Mb, 410.72 Mb, and 432.12 Mb, respectively. Plants of the germplasm investigated were found to be octoploid with a chromosome number of 2n = 8x = 96. The genetic information gathered in this study can be useful for phylogenetic studies, sequencing projects, and domestication programs that focus on controlled pollination for the development of improved Z. Mauritania cultivars in the Sahel region.
Supplemental lighting is frequently used to extend daylength for strawberries (Fragaria ×ananassa) grown in greenhouses and high tunnels; however, information is limited on the effect of these lights on disease development. We evaluated the effect of ambient light and six supplemental light treatments [red, blue, and white light-emitting diodes (LEDs), separately; a combination of red, blue, and white LEDs; wide-spectrum fluorescent (WSF); and WFS + ultraviolet B (UV-B)] on plant growth and disease response of strawberries grown in a greenhouse. Plants were exposed to supplemental light treatments for 17 h each day. In the WSF+UV-B treatment, plants were exposed to WSF light during the day and to UV-B light for 3 hours during the night. Two trials were conducted; each trial contained five or six cultivars and was replicated three times. Twice during each trial, detached leaves from each cultivar in each light treatment were inoculated with a conidial suspension of the anthracnose crown rot pathogen, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and rated for disease severity 10 days later. There was a significant difference due to light treatment and to cultivar in relative chlorophyll content and plant growth parameters. Plant injury ratings were lowest in the white LED, WSF, and WSF+UV-B treatments. Plants in the combination LED and red LED light treatments received higher injury, lower vigor scores, and lower relative chlorophyll content values than plants in all other light treatments. After inoculation of detached strawberry leaves with C. gloeosporioides in Trial 1, there was a significant effect due to light treatments on disease severity ratings (DSRs) after 18 weeks’ exposure to light treatments with the DSRs in the WSF+UV-B treatment being lower than those in all other treatments except those in the red LED treatment. There was not a significant effect in DSRs due to light treatments after 24 weeks in Trial 1 or after 4 or 22 weeks in Trial 2. There were significant effects due to cultivar on DSRs in both trials: ‘Strawberry Festival’, ‘Pelican’, and ‘Seascape’ received the lowest DSRs. This study showed an effect of supplemental light on several strawberry plant growth parameters, including a harmful effect of high-intensity red LED irradiation.