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Cecil T. Pounders and Hamidou F. Sakhanokho

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Hamidou F. Sakhanokho and M. Nurul Islam-Faridi

We report for the first time the incidence of spontaneous autotetraploidy in Solanum aethiopicum (PI 636107). Stomatal dimensions and frequency, number of chloroplasts per guard cell, flow cytometry, and chromosome counts were used to differentiate the diploid plants from tetraploids. The impact of increased ploidy on pollen viability as assessed by in vitro germination and on selected morphological traits was evaluated. In vitro pollen germination was reduced in tetraploid plants, but no significant differences were found in fruit production per plant between diploid and tetraploid plants. Compared with the diploids, the tetraploid plants were significantly shorter and had wider leaves and smaller fruits; therefore, tetraploid S. aethiopicum plants can be valuable for future breeding programs, particularly those aiming to develop shorter, more compact plants. Moreover, some S. aethiopicum selections are grown for their edible leaves, so tetraploid plants producing large leaves would be desirable. Additionally, the availability of tetraploid S. aethiopicum could remove hybridization barriers caused by ploidy differences with other tetraploid Solanum species.

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Hamidou F. Sakhanokho and Nurul Islam-Faridi

Christia obcordata is an intriguing small-sized house plant with unusual and attractive features such as its striped leaves. Because very little is known about the plant, we conducted an investigation of its genome and chromosomes. The number of chromosomes was determined using a protoplast technique to prepare root tip chromosome spread and was found to be 2n = 2x = 20. Flow cytometry was used to determine nuclear DNA content (1C = 0.65 pg = 634.4 Mb) for C. obcordata and AT/GC composition was shown to be AT% = 62.8% ± 0.0% and GC% = 37.2% ± 0.0%. Finally, fluorescent in situ hybridization was used to locate ribosomal RNA gene families in C. obcordata. Ribosomal RNA gene families, viz. 18S-28S and 5S rDNA, are unique cytomolecular landmarks that provide valuable information about the evolutionary organization of a genome. We have identified one locus each of 18S-28S and 5S rDNA. The 18S-28S rDNA is located in the subterminal position on the secondary constriction region [also known as the nucleolus organizer region (NOR)] and the 5S rDNA is located interstitially close to a centromeric position. The basic information gathered in this study on C. obcordata will be helpful in understanding the genetics of this species.

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Cecil T. Pounders, Hamidou F. Sakhanokho, and Leopold M. Nyochembeng

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Hamidou F. Sakhanokho, Kanniah Rajasekaran, and Rowena Y. Kelley

An efficient primary somatic embryo (SE) and secondary somatic embryo (SSE) production system was developed for the ornamental ginger Hedychium bousigonianum Pierre ex Gagnepain. Addition of two ethylene inhibitors, salicylic acid (SA) and silver nitrate (AgNO3), to the culture media improved the system. Callus was initiated and proliferated on a medium containing Murashige and Skoog (MS) basal salts supplemented with 9.05 μM 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and 4.6 μM kinetin. Friable callus was transferred to a liquid medium containing MS basal salts, B5 vitamins, 0.6 μM thidiazuron, and 8.9 μM 6-benzylaminopurine to induce somatic embryogenesis. The effects of various concentrations of SA (0, 25, 50, 75, 100, 125, 150 μM) and AgNO3 (0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60 μM) on callus growth, SE, and SSE development was further evaluated. The rate of callus growth decreased as the concentrations of SA or AgNO3 increased. AgNO3 and SA at all concentrations stimulated SE and SSE development better than the control although a decrease in embryo production was observed at higher concentrations of both SA and AgNO3. The best concentrations for SA were 75 and 100 μM, whereas for AgNO3, they were 30 to 50 μM for both SE and SSE production.

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Hamidou F. Sakhanokho, Anthony L. Witcher, Cecil T. Pounders, and James M. Spiers

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Ebrahiem M. Babiker, Stephen J. Stringer, Hamidou F. Sakhanokho, Barbara J. Smith, and James J. Polashock

Species of Botryosphaeria and Neofusicoccum are major pathogens of blueberry worldwide. Accurate identification of these species is essential for developing effective management practices. A multigene sequencing strategy was used to distinguish between six isolates of stem blight pathogens collected from two different regions of the United States. The temperature growth study revealed that the optimal temperature for growth of five of the tested isolates ranged from 25 to 30 °C, although no significant difference was detected for the growth of Neofusicoccum spp. isolate SD16-86 at 20, 25, 30, and 35 °C. In vitro fungicide assays showed four fungicides, cyprodinil + fludioxonil, propiconazole, pyraclostrobin + boscalid, and azoxystrobin, were effective against the tested isolates with isolate SD16-86 being less sensitive compared with the other isolates. In a detached stem assay, none of 39 blueberry accessions displayed immunity or a high level of resistance to the two tested isolates, and no significant difference in lesion length was detected among the seven tested Vaccinium species inoculated with the two isolates.

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Hamidou F. Sakhanokho, Kanniah Rajasekaran, Rowena Y. Kelley, and Nurul Islam-Faridi

The ploidy level of H. muluense, a diploid (2n = 2x = 34) and dwarf ornamental ginger species, has been determined and is reported for the first time. Oryzalin and colchicine were successfully used to induce polyploidy in Hedychium muluense in vitro. Embryogenic cell lines were treated with oryzalin (30, 60, or 120 μM) and colchicine (2.5, 5, or 10 mm) for 24, 48, or 72 h. The control contained no antimitotic agent. Flow cytometry, chloroplast count, and stomatal frequency were more effective and reliable than stomatal length as methods for assessing ploidy. Overall, oryzalin was more effective than colchicine in inducing polyploidy. The highest induction frequency (15%) of tetraploidy was achieved when embryogenic callus was exposed to 60 μM oryzalin for 72 h. For colchicine, exposure of embryogenic callus to the 2.5 mm colchicine for 24 h was the most effective in creating tetraploid (13%) plants.