Each country has its own agricultural strategy, based on many interrelated factors—e.g., its own natural and human resources, system of government policies, contribution of agriculture to the economy, and trade relations with other countries. No country can afford to claim complete self-sufficiency in its agricultural production. Furthermore, agricultural strategies are related to strategies in other sectors—e.g., population, education, industry, energy, transport, etc. Because of the complexity of the subject, this paper will concentrate on the factors to be considered in determining an agricultural strategy. It will also examine some of those factors as they relate to horticultural development strategies for some of the Middle East countries. Prior to addressing the main topics of this paper, however, a brief description of the World Bank and its role in agricultural development for member countries is in order.
One type of male sterility in carrots is expressed as the change of anthers to petaloid structures. Different shapes of petaloids were observed. According to the degree of petaloidy, they were filamentous, spoon-shaped, incomplete and complete. In most cases the 5 transformed stamens of a single flower exhibited the same shape, although in others some variability existed. Serial sections of normal and petaloid stamens revealed anticlinal cell division of the epidermal cell layer early in stamen primordia development to be associated with petaloidy. In one of the lots the anthers were not completely transformed and in this case there was an inverse relationship between the degree of petaloidy and anther locule development. In anthers where pollen grains dehisced, some were viable and germinable.