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Kent D. Kobayashi and H.C. Bittenbender

In 1988, the Farmer's Bookshelf started out as a computerized information system of crops grown in Hawaii. The first version was created on an Apple Macintosh computer using a hypermedia program called HyperCard. Because HyperCard came with each Macintosh computer, only the crop files needed to be sent to clientele. As the demand for an IBM-compatible version of the Farmer's Bookshelf increased, the Windows version was created using a hypermedia program called Plus. In addition to the crop files, the runtime version of Plus was also distributed to clientele. Later, other files were added to the Farmer's Bookshelf, including files to diagnose problems of macadamia in the field, select ground covers, select landscape trees, recommend fertilization, calculate nut loss for macadamia growers, and calculate turfgrass irrigation. Cost of analysis spread-sheets for several crops were also added. Recently, the Farmer's Bookshelf was moved to the World Wide Web, which has the advantages of reaching a world-wide clientele, easier updating and modifications, and linking to sites of related information. We have added links to newspaper articles on agriculture in Hawaii, to related sites on a particular crop, to on-line agricultural magazines and newsletters, to agricultural software, to upcoming agricultural events, and to Y2K sites. Because of the benefits of the Web version, the diskette versions (Macintosh and Windows) are no longer supported. Putting the Farmer's Bookshelf on the Web has allowed us to better meet the needs of our clientele for up-to-date information.

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Kent D. Kobayashi and H.C. Bittenbender

A computerized personal information management system has been developed to provide information on crop production and industry status to extension personnel and farmers. This hypermedia system, which links interrelated facts, enables the user to browse easily through a mass of information and access specific data rapidly.

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Kent D. Kobayashi and H.C. Bittenbender

Hawaii has had a large growth in housing, and with the reduced lot sizes of single family dwellings has come interest in using ground covers to landscape limited areas. As residential areas are being located on less desirable lands, there is a need to select ground covers that do well in these areas. The objective of this study was to develop a hypermedia information system to recommend ground covers and to obtain information on individual ground covers. Using the software HyperCard® on the Macintosh® computer, we developed a system that uses the idea of index cards with information being stored on separate screens called “cards.” Using a mouse, the user navigates from one card to another by clicking on a “button” on the card. The user may select up to four criteria from 33 criteria including plant height, elevation, soil moisture, flower color, erosion control, and shade. The program then finds which of 48 ground covers meet the desired criteria and provides information on these ground covers. This easy-to-use system requires no typing except to enter a word to search for. The user can quickly browse for the desired information and save it as a text file or print it. The Farmer's Bookshelf™ provides a tool for extension agents and growers to obtain easily vitally needed information. The program has further application for landscape companies, Master Gardener programs, and in horticultural courses.

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Noel P. Kefford and H.C. Bittenbender

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Kent D. Kobayashi and H.C. Bittenbender

Extension personnel and growers need up-to-date information on crops to make sound management decisions. The Farmer's Bookshelf™, a hypermedia information system based on the software HyperCard®, was developed for Macintosh® computers. Since clientele who use IBM-compatible computers could not use the Macintosh version of the Farmer's Bookshelf, we looked into several DOS/Windows™ hypermedia software. Spinnaker PLUS™ (Spinnaker Software Corp.) suited our needs, primarily because it required a minimum of reprogramming. PLUS (Macintosh) converted HyperCard files into PLUS (Macintosh) files. Some programming, fonts, and icons required modifications. PLUS (Macintosh) files were then edited using PLUS (widows). Again, minor editing was necessary. Currently, the PLUS (Windows) files and a runtime version of PLUS (Windows) are distributed to clientele who use IBM-compatible computers. PLUS enables our supporting the Fanner's Bookshelf without having to develop a DOS or Windows version that requires completely new programming and extensive modifications. HyperCard files are readily converted to run under Windows, thus helping us to serve clientele who use either platform.

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Kent D. Kobayashi and H.C. Bittenbender

The objective of this study was to develop a computerized personal information management system for use by extension agents and growers. Agents and growers need an easy-to-use computer information system to access quickly information about specific topics for different crops. An information system helps agents provide faster, better service and up-to-date information to their clients. Using the software LinkWay (IBM Corp.) on an IBM personal computer, we developed such a system called the “Farmer's Bookshelf for the IBM.” This information system uses “index cards” with information stored on separate screens called “pages.” Both textual and graphical information may appear on a page. Using a mouse, the user navigates from one page to another by clicking on a “button” on the page. This easy-to-use system requires no typing except to enter a word for the computer to search. The user can easily browse for the desired information and then print it. The “Farmer's Bookshelf for the IBM” provides an easy, fast tool for agents and growers to obtain vitally needed information.

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H.C. Bittenbender and N.V. Hue

Many areas in Hawaii with potential for growing macadamia lack sufficient rainfall. Ground water in these areas is generally brackish due to sea water intrusion. An experiment was started in 1984 to determine the response of young macadamia trees cv. `Kau' (HAES 344) Macadamia integrifolia to salinity under field irrigated conditions. Treatments were rain only, freshwater, 500 and 1200 ppm salt as diluted sea water to simulate the ground water conditions.

Until mid 1989 trees were irrigated twice weekly to supply 100% ET (evapotranspiration) of the previous week based on a class A pan. No differences were detected among treatments on yield, trunk diameter, soil and tissue nutrient composition except trees in the rain only treatment less yield and trunk growth. Irrigation treatments were modified in mid 1989 to rain only, and twice weekly fresh water, 1200 and 2400 ppm salt at 50 and 75%. ET. Effect on yield, trunk diameter, soil and tissue nutrient composition in the 1989-90 season will be reported.

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Kent D. Kobayashi, H.C. Bittenbender and Howard H. Hirae

Growers and extension personnel need an easy to use method to help diagnose common problems of macadamia nut (Macadamia integrifolia). The Apple Macintosh®) computer and the software HyperCard® provides one such system. We developed a hypermedia stack (file) that gives users the two options of helping diagnose a problem or providing additional information on a problem and its solution. Twenty-three of the most common problems of macadamia nut in Hawaii are coveted including insects, diseases, nutritional deficiencies, harvest, postharvest handling, herbicide injury, poor flowering, and premature nut drop.

With the first option, the program asks the user on what part of the tree does the problem exist--leaves, flowers, nuts, branches, trunk, roots, or the entire tree. It then displays pictures of symptoms of problems specific to that part of the tree, and the user indicates whether these symptoms are present. The program gives the user additional information on the problem, its cause, conditions conducive to the problem, and possible solutions to resolve the problem. With the second option, i.e., if the user already knows the name of the problem, the additional information and solution are shown immediately. This program provides growers and extension personnel with a simple, quick, computerized tool to diagnose problems and access information and solutions.

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Guofan Liu, Kent Kobayashi, H.C. Bittenbender and Loren Gautz

Pruning methods 1.5 × 1.5 m (topping and hedging) and stumping to 0.70 m were used on coffee cultivars Guatemalan, Red Catuai, Yellow Caturra, and Mokka. In the hedged treatment, `Mokka' had the longest laterals, followed by `Guatemalan', with `Red Catuai', and `Yellow Caturra' having similar lengths. `Mokka' had the most nodes/lateral. `Guatemalan' showed the fastest growth (height), followed by `Mokka', with `Red Catuai' and `Yellow Caturra' having similar growth. For 0.70-m pruning, vertical lengths of `Guatemalan' were the longest. `Mokka' had the most vertical nodes. `Guatemalan' had the longest vertical internodes, followed by `Red Catuai' and `Yellow Caturra', with `Mokka' having the shortest. `Yellow Caturra' had the most laterals/vertical, followed by `Red Catuai' and `Guatemalan'. `Mokka' had the fewest. Lateral lengths, nodes/lateral, and internode length were similar for all cultivars. Two-meter pruning height may be best for `Red Catuai' and `Yellow Caturra' because of slow growth, shorter laterals, and fewer nodes/lateral. These two cultivars grew well after being stumped due to faster regrowth and more laterals remaining on new verticals. 1.5-m pruning appears optimum for `Guatemalan', but it grew very well after stumping. It may be better to prune `Mokka' to a 2-m height with a narrow canopy remaining because of its good multiple verticals, fast lateral growth from new verticals in canopy but not in full sun, and more vertical nodes but less laterals regrowing from new verticals on main trunks exposed to full sunlight.

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H.C. Bittenbender, N.V. Hue, Kent Fleming and Hilary Brown

A fertilization experiment, started in 1989, evaluated the merits of macadamia husk-manure compost as fertilizer for the production of macadamia. Three fertilization treatments were compared at four sites over 4 years on the MacFarms of Hawaii Honomalino orchard. The treatments were conventional fertilization, a combination of solid and liquid mineral fertilizers annually adjusted by the orchard manager based on leaf and soil analysis; compost only as 5 tons of a macadamia husk-cattle manure compost applied annually between July and October; and compost plus supplemental mineral fertilizers deemed needed by the orchard manager based on leaf and soil analysis. In-shell nut and kernel yield and quality was not significantly different between treatments. Change in leaf nutrient values appears minimum except for slightly lower N at two sites for the compost treatment. Higher Mg was noted for the compost but not the compost plus treatments at the irrigated sites. The effect of compost on the soil nutrient levels was more distinct and may have a delayed and longer term effect. Total exchange capacity of the soil increased, as did soil pH, Ca, Mg, K, and Na. Organic matter increased only at the site with least soil. Extractable soil Fe decreased, this maybe related to the change in pH, but had no consistent effect on leaf Fe. Compost fertilization was not considered sustainable as the cost of compost and its application exceeded conventional fertilization.