The expected proportion of individuals in progeny having genotypic values for fruit weight over a given selection criterion to the total individuals derived from a cross was estimated by multiple-regression analysis in which inbreeding coefficient (F) and midparental (MP) value were independent variables and progeny mean was the dependent variable in Japanese persimmon (Diospyros kaki Thunb.). A total of 117 seedlings from 39 crosses was used. Genetic differences of progenies among crosses could be explained solely by F and MP, the effect of the former being greater than the latter. The expected proportion of progenies with large fruit decreased as MP decreased and severely decreased as F increased. Based on the parental mean of 35 fruit on a single tree for 3 years, the proportion of individuals in progeny with fruit weight >200 g was estimated as 34%, 21%, and 12% for 0, 0.125, and 0.25 F values, respectively, in individual from a cross with MP = 200 g.
M. Yamada, H. Yamane, and Y. Ukai
M. Yamada, H. Yamane, K. Yoshinaga, and Y. Ukai
Genetic and environmental variances for fruit ripening time (FRT), fruit weight, and soluble solids concentration (SSC) in Japanese persimmon (Diospyros kaki Thunb.) were estimated. The variance among fruit within a tree was the largest among environmental variances. Therefore, using a large sample size per tree and per year effectively increased heritability, but the effect was minimal when more than five fruit were sampled. The variance among years was largest for SSC and smallest for FRT. Generally, the variance associated with the genotype × year interaction was as large as the tree × year interaction. The variance among trees within a genotype was negligible for all traits. Repeating measurements yearly was more efficient than replicating trees.
H. Yamane, R. Tao, A. Sugiura, N. Hauck, and A. Iezzoni
Most fruit tree species of Prunus exhibit gametophytic self-incompatibility, which is controlled by a single locus with multiple alleles (S-alleles). One interesting aspect of gametophytic self-incompatibility is that it commonly “breaks down” as a result of polyploidy, resulting in self-compatible individuals. This phenomenon is exhibited in the diploid sweet cherry (P. avium) and the tetraploid sour cherry (P. cerasus), in which most cultivars are self-compatible. Recently, S-gene products in pistil of Prunus species were shown to be S-RNases. As sour cherry is one Prunus species, it is likely to possess S-alleles encoding pistil S-RNases. To confirm this, we surveyed stylar extracts of 11 sour cherry cultivars, including six self-compatible and five self-incompatible cultivars, by 2D-PAGE. As expected, all 11 cultivars tested yielded glycoprotein spots similar to S-RNases of other Prunus species in terms of Mr, immunological characteristics, and N-terminal sequences. A cDNA clone encoding one of these glycoproteins was cloned from the cDNA library constructed from styles with stigmas of a self-compatible cultivar, `Erdi Botermo'. Deduced amino acid sequence from the cDNA clone contained two active sites of T2/S type RNases and five conserved regions of rosaceous S-RNases. In order to determine the inheritance of self-incompatibility and S-allele diversity in sour cherry, we conducted genomic DNA blot analysis for sour cherry germplasm collections and mapping populations in MSU using the cDNA as a probe. To date, it appears as if self-compatibility in sour cherry is not simply controlled by a self-fertile allele as demonstrated in other Prunus species.
R. Tao, H. Yamane, H. Sassa, H. Mori, H. Murayama, T.M. Gradziel, A.M. Dandekar, and A. Sugiura
Stylar proteins of four Prunus species, P. avium, P. dulcis, P. mume, and P. salicina, were surveyed by 2D-PAGE combined with immunoblot and N-terminal amino acid sequence analyses to identify S-proteins associated with gametophytic SI in the Prunus. All four S-allelic products tested for P. dulcis could be identified in the highly basic zone of the gel. These S-proteins had Mr of about 28–30 kDa and reacted with the anti-S4-serum prepared from Japanese pear (Pyrus serotina). Two of six S-allelic products tested for P. avium could be also identified in the 2D-PAGE profiles, with roughly the same pI and Mr as those of S-proteins of P. dulcis. Putative S-proteins for P. mume and P. salicina were found in the same area of 2D-PAGE as the area where S-proteins of P. avium and P. dulcis were located. N-terminal amino acid sequence analysis of these proteins revealed that they were similar to S-RNases reported previously.
K. Ikeda, A. Watari, K. Ushijima, H. Yamane, N.R. Hauck, A.F. Iezzoni, and R. Tao
S4′ is a pollen-part mutant in sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) that is extensively used to develop self-compatible cultivars. The S4′-haplotype is known to have a functional stylar component and a nonfunctional pollen component. The pollen component in sweet cherry necessary for the specificity of the pollen reaction is believed to be an S-haplotype specific F-box protein gene, called SFB. This study describes two molecular markers that distinguish between SFB4 and SFB4′ by taking advantage of a four base pair deletion in the mutant allele. The resulting polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products can either be separated directly on a polyacrylamide gel or they can be subjected to restriction enzyme digestion and the different sized products can be visualized on an agarose gel. The latter technique utilizes restriction sites created in the PCR products from the SFB4′ allele, but not the SFB4 allele. Because the primer sets created differential restriction sites, these primer sets were termed dCAPS (derived cleaved amplified polymorphism sequence) markers. These molecular assays can be used to verify self-compatibility conferred by the S4′-haplotype.