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  • Author or Editor: H. Melvin Couey x
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Abstract

Heat treatments have been used to control fungal diseases and insect infestation of fruit for many years. However, with the development of effective fungicides and insecticides, especially fumigants, which could be applied cheaply and easily, interest in heat treatments waned. Stringent short- and long-term safety studies imposed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has made retention of registration for many agricultural chemicals increasingly difficult. Some of the fumigants, such as ethylene dibromide, which were developed and used to control insects during the past 20 to 30 years, are no longer registered; others may lose registration in the future. These regulatory restrictions also increase the cost of developing new chemical fumigants and, therefore, interest in heat disinfestation has been revived (5).

Open Access
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Abstract

Exclusion of plant diseases and pests by quarantine procedures is an ancient and valuable practice. The word quarantine comes from the Latin word for 40, quadraginta, and the practice of holding a ship outside of port for 40 days if suspected of carrying disease. Carefully and rigorously applied quarantine methods have restricted the spread of plant diseases and insect pests numerous times. With increasing travel and trade, quarantine barriers are becoming increasingly difficult to maintain and we see new introductions of pests throughout the world. With the demand for exotic products, simple exclusion of potentially infested products is an unsatisfactory response to quarantine requirements. Methods are needed to protect domestic crops from foreign pests with minimal impact on commerce. An ideal quarantine system is highly reliable, harmless to the commodity and to the consumers of the commodity, and inexpensive to apply and administer. It is difficult to develop a system that meets these requirements, and various trade-offs are essential. Since the discovery and development of ethylene dibromide (EDB) and methyl bromide (MB) as general-purpose fumigants, the usual response to quarantine requirements has been an automatic resort to these fumigants. However, considering the potential hazards in the use of fumigants, we are taking a broader approach at our laboratory to the quarantine problems posed by the fruit flies; we hope to utilize infestation biology of the insects, the natural resistance of host plants, various field control measures, and a broader arsenal of alternative postharvest treatments to minimize the use of chemical fumigants.

Open Access
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Abstract

Information regarding chilling injury (Cl) of tropical fruits may be found in recent texts and reviews (36, 27, 28). However, there is much additional information in widely scattered sources.

Open Access

Abstract

Thiabendazole (TBZ) applied in a carnauba wax formulation provided effective control of postharvest diseases of papaya (Carica papaya L.) for up to 14 days at 10°C plus ripening at room temperature. Slightly greater control of disease was observed when TBZ was used immediately after a short hot water spray treatment (54°, 1.5 minute). A more severe hot water dip treatment (48°, 20 minutes) was not significantly more effective than TBZ alone. Sodium o-phenylphenate (SOPP) in wax did not reduce decay when used alone or in combination with TBZ.

Open Access

Abstract

Few agricultural commodities have enjoyed the tremendous success achieved by the Washington State apple industry. The apple acreage in Washington has increased from about 80,000 to over 125,000 acres in recent years. The production reached 72 million boxes in 1981 and will increase to about 85 million by 1985. This expansion is directly related to the improved technology in the production, storage, and marketing of the fruit, which has provided a constant supply of quality fruit to consumers for 11 to 12 months of the year. Much of the success is credited to a strong research effort and the immediate application by the fruit industry of the new technology developed from research.

Open Access

Abstract

Warm fruit of Prunus avium L. cv. Lambert were less susceptible to impact bruising than cold fruit. Mahogany-colored cherries were less susceptible to impact bruising than red-colored cherries.

Open Access

Abstract

A prestorage carbon dioxide treatment of ‘d'Anjou’ pears (Pyrus communis L.) reduced stem decay, tended to reduce scuffing, and improved flavor retention after either regular (RA) or controlled (CA) atmosphere storage. The CO2 treated pears remained firmer than non-treated pears in RA but not in CA. The CO2 treatment followed by RA or CA storage did not affect soluble solids, acidity or color of pears.

Open Access

Abstract

(2-Chloroethyl)phosphonic acid (ethephon) applied 3 weeks before normal harvest hastened most of the changes commonly associated with maturation and ripening of ‘Delicious’ apples. Red color development, increase in soluble solids, water core development and decreased susceptibility to storage scald were all hastened by the ethephon treatment.

Open Access

Abstract

A 10-day exposure of ‘Golden Delicious’ apples to CO2 levels of about 20% at the beginning of controlled-atmosphere storage delayed softening and loss of titratable acidity during subsequent storage.

Open Access

Abstract

Papayas (Carica papaya L.) were stored at 5° or 10°C for 1, 4, 7, 14, or 21 days. Chilling injury was detectable as visible skin discolorations after 4 days at 5°. Differences in electrolyte leakage and Hunter “L” values between fruit stored at 5° and 10° were not significant until after 7 days of storage. Fruit stored at 5° for more than 4 days also produced more ethylene upon transfer to warmer temperatures than did fruit stored at 10°. Differences in ethylene production between fruit stored under chilling temperatures, 5°, and nonchilling temperatures, 10°, increased with length of storage. Papayas chilled for 14 days at 5° retained a capacity to convert ACC to ethylene.

Open Access