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- Author or Editor: H. C. Price x
‘Migold’ is a sweet, pointed bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) with yellow immature fruit that ripen to an orange-red color. It is a week earlier than ‘Romanian’ and is adapted to the northern United States. The fruit have been satisfactorily processed as a pickled product. Although initially developed for the pickling trade, ‘Migold’ is also well-suited for fresh market use, the garden, and as parents for breeding programs.
Field studies were. conducted in 1992 and 1993 to evaluate vacuum planters with respect to precision placement of seeds and to separately study plant spacing and emergence uniformity on stand establishment and yield. All studies were. performed with Bush Blue Lake 47. In 1992, a cooperative study was conducted with the Experiment Station and ten growers in Upstate New York representing four makes of commercial planters. No planter was able to precision seed, and seedling emergence revealed a large tendency to clump plant, with less errors made in the form of misses or skips. In 1993, tractor planting speed was studied as a variable from 3.4 to 12.3 KPH (2.1 to 7.6 MPH) on spacing uniformity and yield. The average number of seedlings per meter of row was similar for all treatments, however, the variation in spacing between plants generally increased as planter speed increased. In research plots, in-rowspacing and emergence uniformity were studied. Plant population was held constant and three in-row spacings were. developed (1 plant 5 cm apart, 2 plants 10 cm apart or 3 plants 15 cm apart). There were. no differences in yield in this study. Daily emergence was recorded and seedlings were grouped into three categories based on their time to emergence (early, medium or late). Yield was more than twice as much from early than late emerging seedlings, while the medium group was intermediate with respect to yield.
Tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) were grown in conventional tillage (CT), rye (Secale cereale L.) mulch no tillage (RNT), and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) mulch no tillage (WNT). Either germinated seeds (GS) or raw seeds (RS) were fluid drilled on several dates in 1981 and 1982. Tomato stands in no tillage (NT) generally were equal to or higher than in CT, and stands improved with later plantings in each year. Plant stands were unaffected by GS and RS. Time to 50% emergence (T50) was up to 4 days less in NT than in CT and 2 to 3 days less from GS than RS. Yields with CT were twice as high as those with NT for early planting dates. Yields decreased in CT with successive planting dates to levels equal to NT plantings. Use of GS increased fruit yields as compared to RS, regardless of the planting date.
Growth and fruit yield of `UC 82' tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) transplanted into no-tillage wheat mulch (WNT) or rye mulch (RNT) on three dates were compared to responses in conventional tillage (CT) following rye. Plant height was unaffected by tillage system. No tillage (NT) reduced the number of flower trusses by 25% when compared to CT. Planting date had no lasting effect on plant height, but late planting (2 June) led to fewer flower trusses than early planting (7 May). Yields of ripe or rotted fruits were unaffected by tillage system. Late planting reduced the number of ripe and rotted fruit and yields but increased weight per fruit compared to earlier plantings (7 or 19 May). Soil moisture and temperature in all tillage systems were similar and did not influence plant growth or fruit yield.
One of the most important decisions a grower makes when formulating plans for planting is what cultivar to select. The experienced grower has observed the evolution of cultivars and is intensely aware of the vast improvements that have been made through plant breeding. Much of the increase in crop productivity can be attributed to the disease resistance, environmental adaptability, and increased yield potential incorporated into cultivars by public and private plant breeders.
Several annual and perennial weed species were effectively controlled with 3-tert-butyl-5-chloro-6-methyluracil (terbacil) in orchards. One-year-old seedling rootstocks of peach, Prunus persica, (L.) Patsch, were most tolerant to terbacil; pear, Pyrus communis, L., and apple, Malus sylvestris, L., seedlings were intermediate; the East Malling (EM) VII clone, Mazzard, Prunus avium, L., and Mahaleb cherry, Prunus mahaleb, L., seedlings were most susceptible. Both surface and soil incorporated applications were toxic, indicating that terbacil was readily leached into the root zone. Applications were made in 2 and 6-year-old experimental blocks and in commercial orchards (age 2–15 years) from 1965 to 1968. No major damage was observed on apple, peach, tart cherry or sweet cherry trees that were established 3 years or longer. Toxicity symptoms manifested as veinal chlorosis were occasionally observed on sandy loam soils at rates 2–3 fold greater than required for satisfactory weed control.
Pepper transplants (Capsicum annuum L.) held under simulated transit conditions synthesized substantial amounts of ethylene, the rate of which was temperature dependent. Transplants treated with known concentrations of ethylene (0, 0.1 to 10.0 μ1/liter) were substantially defoliated at levels lower than those that may be produced in transit by the plants themselves. Exposure to ethylene concentrations of 0.5 jul/liter and greater impeded the growth of transplants after planting into the field. Removal of ethylene in storage with potassium permanganate greatly reduced abscission. Elevated storage CO2 levels stimulated ethylene synthesis by as much as 34%.
Celery (Apium graveolens L.) seeds germinated at 10°C for 14 days produced shorter and more uniform radicles (0– mm) than seeds germinated for 8 days at 24° (0–10 mm). Removal of seed leachates improved the germination of celery seeds in the light. Celery seeds germinated at 10° prior to sowing emerged faster, and produced more uniform plants than those not pregermihated, and were not thermodormant when incubated at 32°.
Seed of germinated celery, Apium graveolens L. (Dulce group) and pepper, Capsicum annuum L. were separated from ungerminated seed by density differences in a sucrose and water solution. The top (floating) fraction in both species had the highest percentage germination and percent and rate of emergence compared to either the bottom fraction or unseparated seed.